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Fluorescent dye-labeled DNA primers have been developed that exploit fluorescence energy transfer (ET) to optimize the absorption and emission properties of the label. These primers carry a fluorescein derivative at the 5' end as a common donor and other fluorescein and rhodamine derivatives attached to a modified thymidine residue within the primer(More)
A combination of thermostable enzymes has been developed that produces higher quality cycle sequences. Thermo Sequenase DNA polymerase is a thermostable enzyme engineered to catalyze the incorporation of ddNTPs with an efficiency several thousandfold better than other thermostable DNA polymerases. Since the enzyme also catalyzes pyrophosphorolysis at(More)
Ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) has been developed to study transient structures in complex chemical reactions initiated with femtosecond laser pulses. This direct imaging of reactions was achieved using our third-generation apparatus equipped with an electron pulse (1.07 +/- 0.27 picoseconds) source, a charge-coupled device camera, and a mass(More)
We report direct determination of the structures and dynamics of interfacial water on a hydrophilic surface with atomic-scale resolution using ultrafast electron crystallography. On the nanometer scale, we observed the coexistence of ordered surface water and crystallite-like ice structures, evident in the superposition of Bragg spots and Debye-Scherrer(More)
Using optical, TEM, and ultrafast electron diffraction experiments we find that single crystal VO(2) microbeams gently placed on insulating substrates or metal grids exhibit different behaviors, with structural and metal-insulator transitions occurring at the same temperature for insulating substrates, while for metal substrates a new monoclinic metal phase(More)
The static structure of macromolecular assemblies can be mapped out with atomic-scale resolution by using electron diffraction and microscopy of crystals. For transient nonequilibrium structures, which are critical to the understanding of dynamics and mechanisms, both spatial and temporal resolutions are required; the shortest scales of length (0.1-1 nm)(More)
Studies of molecular structures at or near their equilibrium configurations have long provided information on their geometry in terms of bond distances and angles. Far-from-equilibrium structures are relatively unknown-especially for complex systems-and generally, neither their dynamics nor their average geometries can be extrapolated from equilibrium(More)
We report the studies of ultrafast electron nanocrystallography on size-selected Au nanoparticles (2-20 nm) supported on a molecular interface. Reversible surface melting, melting, and recrystallization were investigated with dynamical full-profile radial distribution functions determined with subpicosecond and picometer accuracies. In an ultrafast(More)
We review the development of ultrafast electron nanocrystallography as a method for investigating structural dynamics for nanoscale materials and interfaces. Its sensitivity and resolution are demonstrated in the studies of surface melting of gold nanocrystals, nonequilibrium transformation of graphite into reversible diamond-like intermediates, and(More)
We have designed and synthesized fluorescent oligonucleotide primers having improved fluorescence and electrophoretic properties by exploiting the concept of resonance fluorescence energy transfer (ET). These primers carry a fluorescein derivative at the 5' end as a common fluorescence donor and other fluorescein and rhodamine derivatives attached to a(More)