Chong Yen Lee

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Six experiments examined the effects of signaling the termination of inescapable shock (cessation conditioning) or shock-free periods (backward conditioning) on later escape deficits in the learned helplessness paradigm, using rats (Sprague-Dawley and Bantin-Kingman). A cessation signal prevented later performance deficits when highly variable inescapable(More)
The 'ball-and-chain' model suggests the existence of a negative site which may attract the positively charged inactivation ball to occlude the pore when the channel is in the open state. For Shaker K+ channels, we propose that the state-dependent negative site be tryptophan-435, which becomes negatively charged after receiving an electron from tyrosine-445.(More)
Three groups of Lymnaea viridis snails were infected with one, three or five Fasciola hepatica miracidia, and their metacercarial production was observed. In all groups cercarial shedding commenced in some snails as early as day 27 post-infection. The duration and pattern of cercarial shedding varied from snail to snail in each group. Snails infected with(More)
This paper proposes a detailed gating mechanism for the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) channel. In the NMDAR1 subunit, the signal of agonist binding may be carried from Y456 to W590 through an electron transport chain, including W480 which could be the glycine modulatory site. The channel's opening may arise from repulsion between negatively charged W590s,(More)
Experiments have demonstrated that four tryptophan residues are located near the tetrodotoxin binding site in Na+ channels, and that conserved tyrosine and tryptophan residues are located in the pore-forming region of voltage-sensitive K+ channels. This paper proposes an activation mechanism involving electron transfer between these residues. The K+ channel(More)
A data warehouse is an electronic storage of huge amounts of data. It is also a system for retrieving and managing a data. In distributed data warehouse, data can be shared across multiple data repositories. Each may belong to one or more organizations. Query sorting is the problem of formatting the number of queries to be selected together. Reducing the(More)
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