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Drugs active at G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can differentially modulate either canonical or noncanonical signaling pathways via a phenomenon known as functional selectivity or biased signaling. We report biochemical studies showing that the hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide, its precursor ergotamine (ERG), and related ergolines display strong(More)
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) regulates a wide spectrum of human physiology through the 5-HT receptor family. We report the crystal structures of the human 5-HT1B G protein-coupled receptor bound to the agonist antimigraine medications ergotamine and dihydroergotamine. The structures reveal similar binding modes for these ligands, which occupy the(More)
The smoothened (SMO) receptor, a key signal transducer in the hedgehog signalling pathway, is responsible for the maintenance of normal embryonic development and is implicated in carcinogenesis. It is classified as a class frizzled (class F) G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), although the canonical hedgehog signalling pathway involves the GLI transcription(More)
X-ray crystallography of G protein-coupled receptors and other membrane proteins is hampered by difficulties associated with growing sufficiently large crystals that withstand radiation damage and yield high-resolution data at synchrotron sources. We used an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) with individual 50-femtosecond-duration x-ray pulses to minimize(More)
Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) is a G protein-coupled receptor that serves as a primary regulator for blood pressure maintenance. Although several anti-hypertensive drugs have been developed as AT(1)R blockers (ARBs), the structural basis for AT(1)R ligand-binding and regulation has remained elusive, mostly due to the difficulties of growing(More)
The process of folliculogenesis requires a tightly regulated series of gene expression that are a pre-requisite to the development of ovarian follicle. Among these genes, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is notable for its dual role in development of follicles as well as proliferation and differentiation of granulosa cells. The post-transcriptional(More)
RATIONALE The extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (FN) is focally deposited in regions of atherosclerosis, where it contributes to inflammatory signaling. OBJECTIVE To elucidate the mechanism by which FN deposition is regulated by local shear stress patterns, its dependence on platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1 mechanotransduction(More)
Telomerase-negative cancer cells maintain their telomeres by a mechanism known as alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) and achieve unlimited replicative potential. A hallmark of ALT cells is the recruitment of telomeres to promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies and formation of ALT-associated PML bodies (APBs). Although the exact molecular mechanism of(More)
Autophagy is a highly conserved process of cellular degradation, which is present in yeast, plants, and mammals. Under normal physiological conditions, autophagy acts to maintain cellular homeostasis and regulate the turnover of organelles. In response to cellular stresses, autophagy prevents the accumulation of impaired proteins and organelles, which(More)
The Smoothened receptor (SMO) mediates signal transduction in the hedgehog pathway, which is implicated in normal development and carcinogenesis. SMO antagonists can suppress the growth of some tumours; however, mutations at SMO have been found to abolish their antitumour effects, a phenomenon known as chemoresistance. Here we report three crystal(More)