Chong H. Jiang

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BACKGROUND Iatrogenic nerve injury caused by heat from dissection instruments is a significant problem in many areas of surgery. The aim of the present study was to compare the risk of nerve injury for three different dissection instruments: monopolar and bipolar electrosurgery (ES) and an ultrasonically activated (US) instrument. METHODS The biceps(More)
1. Reflexes evoked in bladder parasympathetic neurones by electrical stimulation of bladder C afferent fibres were studied in cats anaesthetized with alpha-chloralose. The responses were compared with the ordinary micturition reflex evoked by low-threshold Adelta afferents from bladder mechanoreceptors and mediated by a spino-ponto-spinal reflex pathway. 2.(More)
Cold-sensitive C afferents of the urinary bladder were studied in adult cats anaesthetised with alpha-chloralose. The bladder was catheterised for fluid instillations and bladder pressure recordings. Pelvic nerve branches were stimulated electrically close to the bladder. Evoked afferent activity was recorded from dissected filaments of the ipsilateral(More)
Potentially one of the most significant opportunities for enterprise integration is the recent development and advancement of agent based systems. However, before agents can be used as generic building blocks, a methodology must be established for the development of these systems. This methodology must encompass modelling, design, and implementation of the(More)
The relationships between agents and objects, and the role of object oriented analysis in multiagent system development have been discussed in earlier papers; these findings are employed here as a foundation for agent design. Patterns are flexible, reusable, and effective object oriented designs. The role of patterns for multiagent systems is discussed, and(More)
1. Prolonged modulation of the parasympathetic micturition reflex was studied in cats anaesthetized by alpha-chloralose. Reflex discharges were recorded from a thin pelvic nerve filament to the bladder and evoked by stimulation of the remaining ipsilateral bladder pelvic nerves or urethral branches of the pudendal nerve. 2. Stimulation of bladder or(More)
Agents are important software abstractions for distributed problem solving and autonomous, pro-active behavior. They have been used in many applications, including manufacturing, enterprise integration, network management, and advanced user interfaces for worldwide web applications. As agent systems become more prevalent, the need arises for software(More)
Sacral foramen neuromodulation--initially applied for the treatment of urinary incontinence--has proved to be effective in patients with chronic urinary retention. Thus far, the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms have not been elucidated. In an experimental study on the neurophysiological basis of sacral neurostimulation, one objective was to(More)