Chloe L. Thio

Learn More
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most common blood-borne infection in the United States, with estimates of 4 million HCV-infected individuals in the United States and 170 million worldwide. Most (70-80%) HCV infections persist and about 30% of individuals with persistent infection develop chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells provide a central defense against viral infection by using inhibitory and activation receptors for major histocompatibility complex class I molecules as a means of controlling their activity. We show that genes encoding the inhibitory NK cell receptor KIR2DL3 and its human leukocyte antigen C group 1 (HLA-C1) ligand directly(More)
BACKGROUND Although coinfection with HIV-1 and hepatitis B virus (HBV) is common, few long-term studies on liver-disease mortality in coinfected people have been undertaken. Our aim was to examine liver-related mortality among people at risk for HIV-1 and HBV infections. METHODS We used data from a multicentre, prospective cohort study to classify 5293(More)
BACKGROUND Prospective characterization of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission in both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and -uninfected men who have sex with men (MSM) over the entire HIV epidemic has not been comprehensively conducted. METHODS To determine the trends in and risk factors associated with incident HCV in MSM since 1984, 5310 HCV(More)
UNLABELLED Chinese translation BACKGROUND Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections occur worldwide and either spontaneously resolve or persist and markedly increase the person's lifetime risk for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although HCV persistence occurs more often in persons of African ancestry and persons with genetic variants near(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the leading cause of chronic liver disease and liver-related death worldwide, with the majority of these cases occurring in areas of Africa and Asia where HBV prevalence is high. Many of the countries that are affected by hepatitis B are also affected by a high HIV burden, leading to frequent HIV/HBV co-infection. The consequences(More)
OBJECTIVE Hepatotoxicity is a significant complication of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We assessed the incidence of and risk factors for hepatotoxicity among HIV-infected individuals on ART in South Africa. DESIGN We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a workplace HIV care program in South Africa which uses a first-line regimen of efavirenz,(More)
Treatment-induced control and spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are affected by various host factors. Polymorphisms in the region of the gene IL28B are associated with HCV clearance, implicating the gene product, interferon (IFN)-λ3, in the immune response to HCV. Although it is not clear how the IL28B haplotype affects HCV(More)
A broad, vigorous CD4 T cell response, mediated by class II human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), favors hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance. HLA-DQB1*0301 has been associated with viral clearance in an ethnically homogeneous cohort. To validate this association and to identify other class II associations in an ethnically varied cohort, molecular class II HLA(More)
BACKGROUND Coinfection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is common in Africa; however, the impact of HBV infection on the outcomes of antiretroviral therapy programs is unclear. We evaluated the impact of chronic hepatitis B on HIV virologic response, changes in CD4 cell count, hepatotoxicity, and mortality among Africans(More)