Chizuko Nishida-Umehara

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All snake species exhibit genetic sex determination with the ZZ/ZW type of sex chromosomes. To investigate the origin and evolution of snake sex chromosomes, we constructed, by FISH, a cytogenetic map of the Japanese four-striped rat snake (Elaphe quadrivirgata) with 109 cDNA clones. Eleven of the 109 clones were localized to the Z chromosome. All human and(More)
Salmonid fishes are among the few animal taxa with a probable recent tetraploid ancestor. The present study is the first to compare large (>100 kb) duplicated genomic sequence fragments in such species. Two contiguous stretches with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes were detected in a rainbow trout BAC library, mapped and sequenced. The(More)
To define the process of karyotypic evolution in the Galliformes on a molecular basis, we conducted genome-wide comparative chromosome painting for eight species, i.e. silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera), Lady Amherst's pheasant (Chrysolophus amherstiae), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), Western capercaillie (Tetrao(More)
Recent progress of chicken genome projects has revealed that bird ZW and mammalian XY sex chromosomes were derived from different autosomal pairs of the common ancestor; however, the evolutionary relationship between bird and reptilian sex chromosomes is still unclear. The Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) exhibits genetic sex determination,(More)
We conducted comparative FISH analyses to investigate the chromosomal rearrangements that have occurred during the evolution of the rodent genus Apodemus, which inhabits broadleaf forests in the temperate zone of the Palaearctic region. Chromosome-specific painting probes of the laboratory mouse were hybridized to chromosomes of seven Apodemus species, A.(More)
The karyotypes of birds, turtles and snakes are characterized by two distinct chromosomal components, macrochromosomes and microchromosomes. This close karyological relationship between birds and reptiles has long been a topic of speculation among cytogeneticists and evolutionary biologists; however, there is scarcely any evidence for orthology at the(More)
In the XX/XY sex-determining system, the Y-linked SRY genes of most mammals and the DMY/Dmrt1bY genes of the teleost fish medaka have been characterized as sex-determining genes that trigger formation of the testis. However, the molecular mechanism of the ZZ/ZW-type system in vertebrates, including the clawed frog Xenopus laevis, is unknown. Here, we(More)
Ryukyu spiny rats (genus Tokudaia), which are endemic to the central part of the Nansei Shoto archipelago in Japan, have unique karyotypes with odd numbers of chromosomes and no cytologically recognizable Y chromosome. The chromosome numbers of Tokudaia osimensis from Amamioshima and of Tokudaia sp. from Tokunoshima are 2n = 25 and 2n = 45, respectively,(More)
In order to construct a chicken (Gallus gallus) cytogenetic map, we isolated 134 genomic DNA clones as new cytogenetic markers from a chicken cosmid DNA library, and mapped these clones to chicken chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Forty-five and 89 out of 134 clones were localized to macrochromosomes and microchromosomes, respectively. The(More)
Palaeognathous birds (Struthioniformes and Tinamiformes) have morphologically conserved karyotypes and less differentiated ZW sex chromosomes. To delineate interspecific chromosome orthologies in palaeognathous birds we conducted comparative chromosome painting with chicken (Gallus gallus, GGA) chromosome 1–9 and Z chromosome paints (GGA1–9 and GGAZ) for(More)