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Peripheral nerve regeneration comprises the formation of axonal sprouts, their outgrowth as regenerating axons and the reinnervation of original targets. This review focuses on the morphological features of axonal sprouts at the node of Ranvier and their subsequent outgrowth guided by Schwann cells or by Schwann cell basal laminae. Adhesion molecules such(More)
Bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) have great potential as therapeutic agents. We report a method for inducing skeletal muscle lineage cells from human and rat general adherent MSCs with an efficiency of 89%. Induced cells differentiated into muscle fibers upon transplantation into degenerated muscles of rats and mdx-nude mice. The induced population(More)
The present review of cutaneous sensory receptors begins with a consideration of free nerve endings (FNEs) that can be considered as sensory terminals evidencing the least structural specialization of the axon and associated cells. Using the criteria established by Kruger et al (1981), FNEs of both A delta and C fibers can be identified on the basis of(More)
The dynamic rearrangement of cell-cell junctions such as tight junctions and adherens junctions is a critical step in various cellular processes, including establishment of epithelial cell polarity and developmental patterning. Tight junctions are mediated by molecules such as occludin and its associated ZO-1 and ZO-2, and adherens junctions are mediated by(More)
PURPOSE In a previous study it has been shown that adult rat hippocampus-derived neural stem cells can be successfully transplanted into neonatal retinas, where they differentiate into neurons and glia, but they cannot be transplanted into adult retinas. In the current study, the effect of mechanical injury to the adult retina on the survival and(More)
Neurogenesis has been described in limited regions of the adult mammalian brain. In this study, we showed that the ependymal layer of the 3rd ventricle is a neurogenic region in the adult rat brain. DiI labeling of the 3rd ventricle revealed that neural progenitor cells were derived from cells at the ependymal layer of the adult 3rd ventricle. The mitosis(More)
The effects of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) on the repair of injured spinal cord and on the behavioral improvement were studied in the rat. The spinal cord was injured by contusion using a weight-drop at the level of T8-9, and the BMSCs from the bone marrow of the same strain were infused into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) through the 4th ventricle.(More)
Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) has been regarded as a potential approach for promoting nerve regeneration. In the present study, we investigated the influence of MSCs on spinal cord neurosphere cells in vitro and on the regeneration of injured spinal cord in vivo by grafting. MSCs from adult rats were cocultured with fetal spinal(More)
The growth cone is responsible for axonal growth, where membrane expansion is most likely to occur. Several recent reports have suggested that presynaptic proteins are involved in this process; however, the molecular mechanism details are unclear. We suggest that by cleaving a presynaptic protein syntaxin, which is essential in targeting synaptic vesicles(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are essential for proper extracellular matrix remodeling. We previously found that a membrane-anchored glycoprotein, RECK, negatively regulates MMP-9 and inhibits tumor invasion and metastasis. Here we show that RECK regulates two other MMPs, MMP-2 and MT1-MMP, known to be involved in cancer progression, that mice lacking a(More)