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In order to examine the effect of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) on ischemic brain injury, NT-3 was topically applied to brain surface just after 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. NT-3 significantly reduced the infarct size at 24 h of reperfusion. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin in situ nick labeling (TUNEL)(More)
Infarct volume and immunoreactivities for trkB and trkC in rat brain were compared at 24 h after 90 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) between animal groups with or without neurotrophin-3 (NT-3, 10 microg/250 g animal). Treatment of rat brain with topical application of NT-3 significantly reduced infarct volume (P = 0.02) and trkB and(More)
Although mature neurones do not replicate genomic DNA, some cell cycle-related kinases are aberrantly activated in neurones after ischaemia. As hyper-phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (Rb) protein is the common pathway in mitotic signal cascade, this study investigated the phosphorylation state of the Rb protein as well as its mRNA level in rat brain after(More)
c-Jun response is involved in the development of ischemic brain injury, which is activated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase-1 (JNK-1). The activity of JNK-1 is strictly regulated, and only the phosphorylated form of JNK (phospho-JNK) which is translocated to the nucleus has an ability to activate c-Jun response. There is a protein which inhibits JNK-1 activation,(More)
In an attempt to elucidate whether glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) receptors are induced after ischemic brain injury, possible expression of immunoreactive GDNF receptor-alpha1 (GFRalpha-1) and c-ret (RET) was examined at 3, 8, or 24 h after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Immunohistochemical study showed that(More)
In order to clarify the role of protein kinases in ischemic brain injury, the spatiotemporal expression of immunoreactive serine-threonine kinase Akt, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were examined at 3, 8, or 24 h after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Weak staining for these(More)
To examine a possible protective effect of exogenous glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) gene expression against ischemic brain injury, a replication-defective adenoviral vector containing GDNF gene (Ad-GDNF) was directly injected into the cerebral cortex at 1 day before 90 minutes of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats.(More)
Promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein is involved in apoptotic death of cultured neuronal cells, but its role in ischemic brain damage remains uncertain. In this study, we investigated change of immunoreactivity for PML protein in rat brain after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, and compared the results with that of terminal deoxynucleotidyl(More)
Highly polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) is transiently expressed specifically in newly generated cells, and is important for migration and neurite outgrowth. To investigate the effect of aging on the migration of neural stem cell (NSC) after brain ischemia, the spatiotemporal expressions of immunoreactive PSA-NCAM were examined at 4 h(More)
It has been empirically known that Ginkgo extract is useful for reducing many symptoms associated with cerebral blood flow (CBF) insufficiency, but its mechanisms have been uncertain. In the present study, therefore, we gave Ginkgo extract to rats with per os digestion, and investigated its effect on CBF and ischemic brain damage with middle cerebral artery(More)