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In order to clarify the role of protein kinases in ischemic brain injury, the spatiotemporal expression of immunoreactive serine-threonine kinase Akt, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were examined at 3, 8, or 24 h after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Weak staining for these(More)
Although mature neurones do not replicate genomic DNA, some cell cycle-related kinases are aberrantly activated in neurones after ischaemia. As hyper-phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (Rb) protein is the common pathway in mitotic signal cascade, this study investigated the phosphorylation state of the Rb protein as well as its mRNA level in rat brain after(More)
It has been empirically known that Ginkgo extract is useful for reducing many symptoms associated with cerebral blood flow (CBF) insufficiency, but its mechanisms have been uncertain. In the present study, therefore, we gave Ginkgo extract to rats with per os digestion, and investigated its effect on CBF and ischemic brain damage with middle cerebral artery(More)
BACKGROUND Grafting of testicular tissue into immunodeficient mice has been used to differentiate the neonatal testes from different animal species up to the level of complete spermatogenesis; however, this approach has not been successful for human testicular tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity for differentiation of infant human(More)
In order to examine the effect of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) on ischemic brain injury, NT-3 was topically applied to brain surface just after 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. NT-3 significantly reduced the infarct size at 24 h of reperfusion. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin in situ nick labeling (TUNEL)(More)
Infarct volume and immunoreactivities for trkB and trkC in rat brain were compared at 24 h after 90 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) between animal groups with or without neurotrophin-3 (NT-3, 10 microg/250 g animal). Treatment of rat brain with topical application of NT-3 significantly reduced infarct volume (P = 0.02) and trkB and(More)
Although apoptotic pathways play important roles in ischemic neuronal injury, exact mechanism of apoptotic enzyme cascade has not been fully studied. Immunohistochemical stainings for cytochrome c and caspase-3, and histochemical staining for a terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling method (TUNEL) were examined in(More)
In an attempt to elucidate whether glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) receptors are induced after ischemic brain injury, possible expression of immunoreactive GDNF receptor-alpha1 (GFRalpha-1) and c-ret (RET) was examined at 3, 8, or 24 h after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Immunohistochemical study showed that(More)
c-Jun response is involved in the development of ischemic brain injury, which is activated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase-1 (JNK-1). The activity of JNK-1 is strictly regulated, and only the phosphorylated form of JNK (phospho-JNK) which is translocated to the nucleus has an ability to activate c-Jun response. There is a protein which inhibits JNK-1 activation,(More)