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The aim of this study was to determine HIV-1 incidence among women of reproductive age in Malawi. A prospective study design was followed. HIV-1 uninfected women were followed up for nine visits during a period of 12 months. At baseline, women received HIV-1 counselling and testing. At each visit, venous blood was collected for HIV-1 testing. Incidence rate(More)
We assessed the safety of short-term antiretroviral prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV by monitoring haematological changes in children up to the age of 18 months. Babies of HIV-infected women were randomised at birth to receive a single dose of nevirapine (NVP) alone or with zidovudine (ZDV) twice daily for a week. Based on(More)
CONTEXT Antenatal counseling and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing are not universal in Africa; thus, women often present in labor with unknown HIV status without receiving the HIVNET 012 nevirapine (NVP) regimen (a single oral dose of NVP to the mother at the start of labor and to the infant within 72 hours of birth). OBJECTIVE To determine risk(More)
OBJECTIVE We assessed the impact of breastfeeding by women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 on their morbidity and risk of mortality and on the mortality of their children. METHODS We analysed longitudinal data from two previous randomized clinical trials of mother-to-child transmission of HIV conducted between April 2000 and March 2003(More)
BACKGROUND The present study was undertaken to determine the risk and timing of late postnatal transmission (LPT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). METHODS Breast-fed infants previously enrolled in 2 trials of antiretroviral prophylaxis were monitored in Malawi. Kaplan-Meier and proportional hazard models assessed cumulative incidence and(More)
BACKGROUND In sub-Saharan Africa, most women present late for delivery with unknown HIV status, which limits the use of intrapartum nevirapine to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. We aimed to determine whether post-exposure prophylaxis of nevirapine plus zidovudine given to babies only reduced transmission of HIV more than did a regimen of(More)
This study aimed to determine changes in fertility intentions of HIV-1 infected and uninfected reproductive age women in Blantyre, Malawi. Participants were asked about their fertility intentions at baseline and at 3-month visits for 1 year. Time-to-event statistical models were used to determine factors associated with changes in fertility intentions.(More)
In a microbicide safety and effectiveness trial (HPTN 035) in Malawi, 585 women completed the same questionnaire through a face-to-face interview (FTFI) and an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI). Concordance between FTFI and ACASI responses ranged from 72.0 % for frequency of sex in the past week to 95.2 % for anal intercourse (AI) in the past 3(More)
BACKGROUND Data evaluating the biological events and determinants of early human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection are limited in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined plasma viral levels and trends during early and established HIV-1 infection among reproductive-age women who participated in a randomized trial to treat genital tract infection in(More)
OBJECTIVE We investigated gender-specific risks of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) at birth and at 6 to 8 weeks among infants born to HIV-infected African women. DESIGN Follow-up study of infants enrolled in 2 randomized, phase III, clinical trials to prevent MTCT, conducted in Blantyre, Malawi, in southeast Africa. METHODS Infants were enrolled at(More)