Chiwawa Nkhoma

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This study aimed to determine changes in fertility intentions of HIV-1 infected and uninfected reproductive age women in Blantyre, Malawi. Participants were asked about their fertility intentions at baseline and at 3-month visits for 1 year. Time-to-event statistical models were used to determine factors associated with changes in fertility intentions.(More)
The aim of this study was to determine HIV-1 incidence among women of reproductive age in Malawi. A prospective study design was followed. HIV-1 uninfected women were followed up for nine visits during a period of 12 months. At baseline, women received HIV-1 counselling and testing. At each visit, venous blood was collected for HIV-1 testing. Incidence rate(More)
CONTEXT Antenatal counseling and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing are not universal in Africa; thus, women often present in labor with unknown HIV status without receiving the HIVNET 012 nevirapine (NVP) regimen (a single oral dose of NVP to the mother at the start of labor and to the infant within 72 hours of birth). OBJECTIVE To determine risk(More)
BACKGROUND Data evaluating the biological events and determinants of early human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection are limited in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined plasma viral levels and trends during early and established HIV-1 infection among reproductive-age women who participated in a randomized trial to treat genital tract infection in(More)
OBJECTIVE We assessed the impact of breastfeeding by women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 on their morbidity and risk of mortality and on the mortality of their children. METHODS We analysed longitudinal data from two previous randomized clinical trials of mother-to-child transmission of HIV conducted between April 2000 and March 2003(More)
Survey questionnaires and focus group discussions were used to investigate the association between a female participant's acceptance and her perception of her male partner's acceptance of an intravaginal gel as a prototype microbicide. Women who perceived their male partners would accept using the gel were more likely to highly accept the gel as compared to(More)
OBJECTIVE Assess efficacy of intermittent intravaginal metronidazole gel treatment in reducing frequency of bacterial vaginosis (BV). DESIGN Randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. SETTING Postnatal and family planning clinics of the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital and two health centers in Blantyre, Malawi. PARTICIPANTS(More)
We assessed the safety of short-term antiretroviral prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV by monitoring haematological changes in children up to the age of 18 months. Babies of HIV-infected women were randomised at birth to receive a single dose of nevirapine (NVP) alone or with zidovudine (ZDV) twice daily for a week. Based on(More)
BACKGROUND In sub-Saharan Africa, most women present late for delivery with unknown HIV status, which limits the use of intrapartum nevirapine to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. We aimed to determine whether post-exposure prophylaxis of nevirapine plus zidovudine given to babies only reduced transmission of HIV more than did a regimen of(More)
BACKGROUND The present study was undertaken to determine the risk and timing of late postnatal transmission (LPT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). METHODS Breast-fed infants previously enrolled in 2 trials of antiretroviral prophylaxis were monitored in Malawi. Kaplan-Meier and proportional hazard models assessed cumulative incidence and(More)