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Altered cytokine secretion as a mechanism in the etiology of depression is still obscure. The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) may play an important role in the termination of serotonergic neurotransmission by serotonin (5-HT) uptaking into presynaptic neurons and representing as an initial action site for selective 5-HTT reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). In our(More)
Ginsenoside, the active principles in Panax ginseng root, has been demonstrated to show neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions for prevention of neuron degeneration. Deposition of beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) causes neurotoxicity through the formation of plaques in brains with Alzheimer's disease. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)(More)
Guanidine, the active ingredient extracted from Galega officinalis, is introduced as a ligand for imidazoline I2 receptor (I2R) because guanidine decreased plasma glucose via an activation of I2BR to increase glucose uptake into skeletal muscle isolated from Wistar rats. However, the signals for this action of guanidine remained obscure. In the present(More)
OBJECTIVE Our previous work showed that 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced mouse thymocytes to undergo apoptosis both in vivo and in vitro. In the present study, we further investigated the mechanisms of 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis in vitro. METHODS Naive mouse thymocytes were cultured with 6-OHDA. The percentages of apoptotic cells were quantified by(More)
Guanidine is an active ingredient extracted from Galega officinalis. It is considered as ligand for imidazoline receptor due to the similarity of chemical structure. Previous studies showed that an activation of imidazoline I2 receptor (I2R) in adrenal gland lowered plasma glucose through releasing beta-endorphin to stimulate the opioid-mu receptor in(More)
Role of muscarinic receptor in the regulation of glucose uptake or lipolysis in adipose tissue remained unclear. In epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) isolated from Wistar rats, we observed that acetylcholine (ACh) attenuated the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and the release of glycerol from WAT in a concentration-dependent manner. Using the blockade(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonist has anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. However, the mechanisms by which PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone interferes with inflammation and cancer via phosphatase and tensin homolog-(PTEN)-dependent pathway remain unclear. We found that lower doses (<25  μ M) of rosiglitazone significantly(More)
6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induces degeneration of noradrenergic nerves and has been shown to alter the immune responses. In this study, intraperitoneal administration of 6-OHDA induces mouse thymus atrophy. The lowest levels of thymus weight and cell number were reached at days 3 and 5 in mice receiving 6-OHDA treatment; they gradually recovered(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an endogenous neuropeptide observed in adrenal gland and sympathetic ganglia to regulate catecholamine synthesis and release. Both PACAP and glucocorticoid showed the activity to elevate catecholamine level through the stimulation of biosynthesis. However, the relationship of glucocorticoid and(More)