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Altered cytokine secretion as a mechanism in the etiology of depression is still obscure. The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) may play an important role in the termination of serotonergic neurotransmission by serotonin (5-HT) uptaking into presynaptic neurons and representing as an initial action site for selective 5-HTT reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). In our(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to glucose abnormality. HCV depends on lipid droplets (LDs) and very-low density lipoproteins for assembly/releasing; however, the components and locations for this process remain unidentified. Apolipoprotein J (ApoJ), upregulated by glucose, functions as Golgi chaperone of secreted proteins and(More)
A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine not only is widely used in the treatment of depression but also has an anti-inflammatory property. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3β) is a vital factor in the inflammation process. How fluoxetine interferes with inflammation via a GSK-3β-dependent pathway remains unclear. The aim of this study is to(More)
Guanidine, the active ingredient extracted from Galega officinalis, is introduced as a ligand for imidazoline I2 receptor (I2R) because guanidine decreased plasma glucose via an activation of I2BR to increase glucose uptake into skeletal muscle isolated from Wistar rats. However, the signals for this action of guanidine remained obscure. In the present(More)
Role of muscarinic receptor in the regulation of glucose uptake or lipolysis in adipose tissue remained unclear. In epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) isolated from Wistar rats, we observed that acetylcholine (ACh) attenuated the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and the release of glycerol from WAT in a concentration-dependent manner. Using the blockade(More)
Guanidine is an active ingredient extracted from Galega officinalis. It is considered as ligand for imidazoline receptor due to the similarity of chemical structure. Previous studies showed that an activation of imidazoline I2 receptor (I2R) in adrenal gland lowered plasma glucose through releasing beta-endorphin to stimulate the opioid-mu receptor in(More)
Ginsenoside, the active principles in Panax ginseng root, has been demonstrated to show neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions for prevention of neuron degeneration. Deposition of beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) causes neurotoxicity through the formation of plaques in brains with Alzheimer's disease. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)(More)
Blunt trauma to the pelvic or perineal region of the corpora cavernosa is a risk factor for the subsequent development of persistent erectile dysfunction. The hemodynamic investigation of the integrity of the veno-occlusive mechanism has been rare in cases of traumatic impotence. We present two young men with erectile dysfunction following blunt penile or(More)
The role of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) has been demonstrated in stroke and coronary artery disease but not in peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). The pathogenesis of HMGB1 in acute and chronic vascular injury is also not well understood. We hypothesized that HMGB1 induces inflammatory markers in diabetic PAOD patients. We studied 36(More)
Sphingomyelinase (SMase) regulates an activation of the sphingomyelin cycle. Recent studies have shown that it is a novel modulator of monoamine receptor and transporter functions; however, its mechanisms are not fully understood. Our previous studies have found that interferon-alpha (IFN-α) up-regulates serotonin (5-HT) transporter expression and induces(More)