Chitra Venugopal

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Bmi1 is a key stem cell regulatory gene implicated in the pathogenesis of many aggressive cancers, including medulloblastoma. Overexpression of Bmi1 promotes cell proliferation and is required for hedgehog (Hh) pathway-driven tumorigenesis. This study aimed to determine if Sonic hedgehog (Shh) modulates the key stem cell regulatory gene Bmi1 in childhood(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) ranks among the deadliest types of cancer and given these new therapies are urgently needed. To identify molecular targets, we queried a microarray profiling 467 human GBMs and discovered that polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) was highly expressed in these tumors and that it clustered with the proliferative subtype. Patients with(More)
The amyloid hypothesis has dominated the thinking in our attempts to understand, diagnose and develop drugs for Alzheimer's disease (AD). This article presents a new hypothesis that takes into account the numerous familial AD (FAD) mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its processing pathways, but suggests a new perspective beyond toxicity of(More)
PURPOSE Clonal evolution of cancer may be regulated by determinants of stemness, specifically self-renewal, and current therapies have not considered how genetic perturbations or properties of stemness affect such functional processes. Glioblastoma-initiating cells (GICs), identified by expression of the cell surface marker CD133, are shown to be(More)
Cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by beta- and gamma-secretases results in generation of the amyloid-beta protein (Abeta), which is characteristically deposited in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase (the statins) reduce levels of cholesterol and isoprenoids such as(More)
A close association between brain metal dishomeostasis and the onset and/or progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been clearly established in a number of studies, although the underlying biochemical mechanisms remain obscure. This observation renders chelation therapy an attractive pharmacological option for the treatment of this disease. However, a(More)
Brain tumors represent the leading cause of childhood cancer mortality, of which medulloblastoma (MB) is the most frequent malignant tumor. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of several MB molecular subgroups, each distinct in terms of prognosis and predicted therapeutic response. Groups 1 and 2 are characterized by relatively good clinical(More)
Brain tumors represent the leading cause of childhood cancer mortality, with medulloblastoma (MB) being the most frequent malignant tumor. In this review we discuss the morphological and molecular heterogeneity of this malignant childhood brain tumor and how this key feature has implicated the presence of a MB stem cell. We focus on evidence from cerebellar(More)
BACKGROUND Brain metastases are most common in adults with lung cancer, predicting uniformly poor patient outcome, with a median survival of only months. Despite their frequency and severity, very little is known about tumorigenesis in brain metastases. METHODS We applied previously developed primary solid tumor-initiating cell models to the study of(More)
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. This disease is heterogeneous and is composed of four subtypes of medulloblastoma [WNT, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), Group 3, and Group 4]. An immediate goal is to identify novel molecular targets for the most aggressive forms of medulloblastoma. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is an oncogenic kinase(More)