Chinnambedu Nainarappan Paramasivan

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SETTING Tuberculosis is endemic in south India: sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis is predisposed by HLA-DR2 in south India and few other populations of the world. OBJECTIVE To study HLA-DRB1, DQB1, DQA1 and DPB1 allelic polymorphism in pulmonary tuberculosis patients and endemic controls from south India. DESIGN One hundred and twenty-six, sputum(More)
BACKGROUND The Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance has been gathering data since 1994. This study provides the latest data on the extent of drug resistance worldwide. METHODS Data for drug susceptibility were gathered from 90 726 patients in 83 countries and territories between 2002 and 2007. Standardised collection of results enabled(More)
With an estimated 9.4 million new cases globally, tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a major public health concern. Eighty percent of all cases worldwide occur in 22 high-burden, mainly resource-poor settings. This devastating impact of tuberculosis on vulnerable populations is also driven by its deadly synergy with HIV. Therefore, building capacity and(More)
In 204 patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis HLA-A10, B8 and DR2 were more frequently found than in 404 control subjects (p = 0.01); the greatest attributable risk (0.29) was associated with HLA-DR2. The radiographic extent of disease was also associated with HLA-DR2 (p = 0.0001). In 152 patients with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis, the(More)
SETTING Madras, India. OBJECTIVE To explore the utility of a standardized IS6110/PvuII deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fingerprinting restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing method for distinguishing between isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and to assess the potential for distinguishing between relapse versus reinfection rates. DESIGN(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the rate of development of active tuberculosis (TB) in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients, and to identify the characteristics of these patients. DESIGN A total of 175 HIV-positive individuals were recruited from clinics for sexually transmitted diseases and followed up for 31 +/- 6.8 months. Clinical(More)
BACKGROUND Limited information about the prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) has been reported from India, the country with the world's highest burden of TB. We conducted a representative state-wide survey in the state of Gujarat (2005 population: 56 million). METHODS Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from a representative sample of new and(More)
The current global concern in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) is the emergence of resistance to the two most potent drugs viz., isoniazid and rifampicin. The level of initial drug resistance is an epidemiological indicator to assess the success of the TB control programme. Though drug resistance in TB has frequently been reported from India, most of the(More)
The early bactericidal activities (EBAs) of 300 mg isoniazid, 18.5 mg isoniazid, 600 mg rifampicin and 800 mg ofloxacin given daily to 262 patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis in Cape Town, Nairobi, Madras and Hong Kong were measured by counting cfu and total acid-fast bacilli in sputum collections taken pre-treatment (S1), at 2 days (S3)(More)
Diagnosis of tuberculosis is challenging, especially in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive persons who may have atypical clinical and radiographic features. We report the isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from sputum samples of 10 (4%) HIV-positive persons who were asymptomatic with normal chest radiographs and negative sputum smears for(More)