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There have been differing descriptions of the anterolateral structures of the knee, and not all have been named or described clearly. The aim of this study was to provide a clear anatomical interpretation of these structures. We dissected 40 fresh-frozen cadaveric knees to view the relevant anatomy and identified a consistent structure in 33 knees (83%); we(More)
BACKGROUND Anterolateral rotatory instability (ALRI) may result from combined anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and lateral extra-articular lesions, but the roles of the anterolateral structures remain controversial. PURPOSE To determine the contribution of each anterolateral structure and the ACL in restraining simulated clinical laxity in both the intact(More)
This paper reviews and updates our knowledge of the anatomy and biomechanics of the posterior cruciate ligament, and of the posterolateral, posteromedial and meniscofemoral ligaments of the knee. The posterior cruciate ligament is shown to have two functional fibre bundles that are tight at different angles of knee flexion. It is the primary restraint to(More)
This annotation considers the place of extra-articular reconstruction in the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency. Extra-articular reconstruction has been employed over the last century to address ACL deficiency. However, the technique has not gained favour, primarily due to residual instability and the subsequent development of(More)
Meniscus-to-femoral condyle congruity is essential for the development of circumferential hoop stresses and thus function of the meniscus. When meniscal allograft transplantation is performed using bony anchorage of the insertional ligaments, accurate graft-to-host size matching is therefore essential. The standard method currently employed for size(More)
Achilles tendon rupture has been on the rise over recent years due to a variety of reasons. It is a debilitating injury with a protracted and sometimes incomplete recovery. Management strategy is a controversial topic and evidence supporting a definite approach is limited. Opinion is divided between surgical repair and conservative immobilisation in(More)
Treatment options for meniscal tears fall into three broad categories; non-operative, meniscectomy or meniscal repair. Selecting the most appropriate treatment for a given patient involves both patient factors (e.g., age, co-morbidities and compliance) and tear characteristics (e.g., location of tear/age/reducibility of tear). There is evidence suggesting(More)
PURPOSE The goal of this study was to review current knowledge on the anatomy, biomechanics, and functions of the meniscofemoral ligaments. TYPE OF STUDY Literature review. METHODS A systematic search of the literature spanning the past 2 centuries was performed. This revealed several anatomic and biomechanical studies, which were analyzed for the(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence, position and relative sizes of the meniscofemoral ligaments (MFL) in three quadrupeds and humans and relate these to the caudal slope of the lateral tibial plateau. Canine, ovine and equine stifles and human knees were dissected to identify the presence of MFLs, their obliquity in relation to the(More)
BACKGROUND Lateral extra-articular soft tissue reconstructions in the knee may be used as a combined procedure in revision anterior cruciate ligament surgery as well as in primary treatment for patients who demonstrate excessive anterolateral rotatory instability. Only a few studies examining length change patterns and isometry in lateral extra-articular(More)