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SUMMARY A third-order low-distortion delta-sigma modulator (DSM), whose third-order noise-shaping ability is achieved by just a single opamp, is proposed. Since only one amplifier is required in the whole circuit, the designed DSM is very power efficient. To realize the adder in front of quantizer without employing the huge-power opamp, a capac-itive(More)
Natural modifications of peptidoglycan modulate the innate immune response. Peptidoglycan derivatives activate this response via the intracellular innate immune receptor, Nod2. To probe how these modifications alter the response, a novel and efficient carbohydrate synthesis was developed to allow for late-stage modification of the amine at the 2-position.(More)
Bacterial cells are surrounded by a polymer known as peptidoglycan (PG), which protects the cell from changes in osmotic pressure and small molecule insults. A component of this material, N-acetyl-muramic acid (NAM), serves as a core structural element for innate immune recognition of PG fragments. We report the synthesis of modifiable NAM carbohydrate(More)
The human body harbors over a trillion microorganisms; the innate immune system is charged with a tremendous task: to recognize "the needle in the haystack" or, in other words, to sense the pathogen in this milieu. In this viewpoint, three recent discoveries in the field of innate immunity are discussed, highlighting how in each case multiple disciplines(More)
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (Nod2) is an intracellular receptor that can sense the bacterial peptidoglycan component, muramyl dipeptide. Upon activation, Nod2 induces the production of various inflammatory molecules such as cytokines and chemokines. Genetic linkage analysis identified and revealed three major mutations in Nod2 that are(More)
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