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BACKGROUND The Somatic Marker Hypothesis suggests that normal subjects are "foreseeable" and ventromedial prefrontal patients are "myopic" in making decisions, as the behavior shown in the Iowa Gambling Task. The present study questions previous findings because of the existing confounding between long-term outcome (expected value, EV) and gain-loss(More)
First, we assume that the controlled systems contain a nonlinear matrix gain before a linear discrete-time multivariable dynamic system. Then, a forward control based on a nominal system is employed to cancel the system nonlinear matrix gain and track the desired trajectory. A novel recurrent-neural-network (RNN) with a compensation of upper bound of its(More)
BACKGROUND Somatic Marker Hypothesis (SMH), based on clinical observations, delineates neuronal networks for interpreting consciousness generation and decision-making. The Iowa gambling task (IGT) was designed to verify the SMH. However, more and more behavioral and brain imaging studies had reported incongruent results that pinpointed a need to re-evaluate(More)
Over past decade, the Iowa gambling task (IGT) has been utilized to test various decision deficits induced by neurological damage or psychiatric disorders. The IGT has recently been standardized for identifying 13 different neuropsychological disorders. Neuropsychological patients choose bad decks frequently, and normal subjects prefer good expected value(More)
BACKGROUND Dunn et al. performed a critical review identifying some problems in the Somatic Marker Hypothesis (SMH). Most of the arguments presented by Dunn focused on the insufficiencies for replication of skin conductance responses and somatic brain loops, but the study did not carefully reassess the core-task of SMH. In a related study, Lin and Chiu et(More)
BACKGROUND The Iowa gambling task is a popular test for examining monetary decision behavior under uncertainty. According to Dunn et al. review article, the difficult-to-explain phenomenon of "prominent deck B" was revealed, namely that normal decision makers prefer bad final-outcome deck B to good final-outcome decks C or D. This phenomenon was(More)
Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the uterine cervix are rare tumors with early metastases, highly aggressive clinical behavior, and poor clinical outcome. Several adhesion molecules like cadherins have been tested in an attempt to explain their unique characteristics. Cluster differentiation 44 (CD44) is a widely expressed cell surface glycoprotein that serves(More)
AIMS Hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) is an enzyme in hyaluronan synthesis. Several studies have demonstrated that HAS2 plays a critical role in tumour progression in breast cancer cells. The in-situ expression patterns of HAS2 remain unclear, and the aim of this study was to determine these in order to elucidate the role of HAS2 in breast cancer. METHODS AND(More)
BACKGROUND In the past two decades, the incidence of breast cancer in young Taiwanese females has been rapidly increasing, approaching the risk level of western countries. As a first step to investigate the possible etiology, we examined the molecular subtypes of female breast cancer in Taiwan. METHODS This study included 1,028 consecutive patients with(More)
While tumor suppressor genes frequently undergo epigenetic silencing in cancer, how the instructions directing this transcriptional repression are transmitted in cancer cells remain largely unclear. Expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C), an imprinted gene on chromosomal band 11 p15.5, is reduced or lost in the majority of breast(More)