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BACKGROUND The Somatic Marker Hypothesis suggests that normal subjects are "foreseeable" and ventromedial prefrontal patients are "myopic" in making decisions, as the behavior shown in the Iowa Gambling Task. The present study questions previous findings because of the existing confounding between long-term outcome (expected value, EV) and gain-loss(More)
First, we assume that the controlled systems contain a nonlinear matrix gain before a linear discrete-time multivariable dynamic system. Then, a forward control based on a nominal system is employed to cancel the system nonlinear matrix gain and track the desired trajectory. A novel recurrent-neural-network (RNN) with a compensation of upper bound of its(More)
BACKGROUND Somatic Marker Hypothesis (SMH), based on clinical observations, delineates neuronal networks for interpreting consciousness generation and decision-making. The Iowa gambling task (IGT) was designed to verify the SMH. However, more and more behavioral and brain imaging studies had reported incongruent results that pinpointed a need to re-evaluate(More)
BACKGROUND Dunn et al. performed a critical review identifying some problems in the Somatic Marker Hypothesis (SMH). Most of the arguments presented by Dunn focused on the insufficiencies for replication of skin conductance responses and somatic brain loops, but the study did not carefully reassess the core-task of SMH. In a related study, Lin and Chiu et(More)
Over past decade, the Iowa gambling task (IGT) has been utilized to test various decision deficits induced by neurological damage or psychiatric disorders. The IGT has recently been standardized for identifying 13 different neuropsychological disorders. Neuropsychological patients choose bad decks frequently, and normal subjects prefer good expected value(More)
BACKGROUND The Iowa gambling task is a popular test for examining monetary decision behavior under uncertainty. According to Dunn et al. review article, the difficult-to-explain phenomenon of "prominent deck B" was revealed, namely that normal decision makers prefer bad final-outcome deck B to good final-outcome decks C or D. This phenomenon was(More)
BACKGROUND Behavioral decision making literature suggests that decision makers are guided less by final outcome than by immediate gain-loss. However, studies of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) under dynamic and uncertain conditions reveal very different conclusions about the role of final outcome. Another research group designed a similar yet simpler game, the(More)
Breast carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in women and is known to arise from a multifactorial process, the effect of reproductive risk factors strongly supporting a hormonal role in its etiology. Breast cancer in Asia is characterized by a lower incidence than in Western populations, but is still the leading type of cancer in Asian women, and a(More)
The interplay between histone modifications and promoter hypermethylation provides a causative explanation for epige-netic gene silencing in cancer. Less is known about the upstream initiators that direct this process. Here, we report that the Cystatin M (CST6) tumor suppressor gene is concurrently down-regulated with other loci in breast epithelial cells(More)
In this paper, we proposed a test data compression scheme targeted for minimizing the amount of test data. The proposed scheme can reduce the test application time and minimize the amount of compressed test data, which reduces the size of data memory in ATE and the time needed to transfer test data. A decoder design is also presented. Experimental results(More)