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BACKGROUND The Somatic Marker Hypothesis suggests that normal subjects are "foreseeable" and ventromedial prefrontal patients are "myopic" in making decisions, as the behavior shown in the Iowa Gambling Task. The present study questions previous findings because of the existing confounding between long-term outcome (expected value, EV) and gain-loss(More)
First, we assume that the controlled systems contain a nonlinear matrix gain before a linear discrete-time multivariable dynamic system. Then, a forward control based on a nominal system is employed to cancel the system nonlinear matrix gain and track the desired trajectory. A novel recurrent-neural-network (RNN) with a compensation of upper bound of its(More)
BACKGROUND Dunn et al. performed a critical review identifying some problems in the Somatic Marker Hypothesis (SMH). Most of the arguments presented by Dunn focused on the insufficiencies for replication of skin conductance responses and somatic brain loops, but the study did not carefully reassess the core-task of SMH. In a related study, Lin and Chiu et(More)
BACKGROUND Somatic Marker Hypothesis (SMH), based on clinical observations, delineates neuronal networks for interpreting consciousness generation and decision-making. The Iowa gambling task (IGT) was designed to verify the SMH. However, more and more behavioral and brain imaging studies had reported incongruent results that pinpointed a need to re-evaluate(More)
Over past decade, the Iowa gambling task (IGT) has been utilized to test various decision deficits induced by neurological damage or psychiatric disorders. The IGT has recently been standardized for identifying 13 different neuropsychological disorders. Neuropsychological patients choose bad decks frequently, and normal subjects prefer good expected value(More)
BACKGROUND The Iowa gambling task is a popular test for examining monetary decision behavior under uncertainty. According to Dunn et al. review article, the difficult-to-explain phenomenon of "prominent deck B" was revealed, namely that normal decision makers prefer bad final-outcome deck B to good final-outcome decks C or D. This phenomenon was(More)
Substantial evidence indicates that exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) during early development may increase breast cancer risk later in life. The changes may persist into puberty and adulthood, suggesting an epigenetic process being imposed in differentiated breast epithelial cells. The molecular mechanisms by which early memory of BPA exposure is imprinted in(More)
Presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in variable proportions in tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma tissues has been demonstrated by several worldwide studies. Some reports emphasized the significance of HPV in predicting a better prognosis, as well as ethnic differences between Chinese and Caucasians. In order to understand the biological role of HPV and(More)
Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the uterine cervix are rare tumors with early metastases, highly aggressive clinical behavior, and poor clinical outcome. Several adhesion molecules like cadherins have been tested in an attempt to explain their unique characteristics. Cluster differentiation 44 (CD44) is a widely expressed cell surface glycoprotein that serves(More)
While tumor suppressor genes frequently undergo epigenetic silencing in cancer, how the instructions directing this transcriptional repression are transmitted in cancer cells remain largely unclear. Expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C), an imprinted gene on chromosomal band 11 p15.5, is reduced or lost in the majority of breast(More)