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To understand how vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production is activated in malignant glioma cells, we employed protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) and protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors to evaluate the extent to which these protein kinases were involved in signal transduction leading to VEGF production. PTK inhibitors blocked glioma proliferation and(More)
Small-diameter sensory nerves innervating the skin are responsive to noxious stimuli, and an injury to these nerves is presumably related to neuropathic pain. Injury-induced neuropathic pain in animals can be produced by laser irradiation, which usually requires concomitant use of photosensitive dyes, known as the photochemical approach. It is not clear(More)
Single-stranded telomeric DNA tends to form a four-base-paired planar structure termed G-quadruplex. This structure was easily formed in vitro in the presence of monovalent cations. However, the existence of this structure in native human telomeres is unclear. Here we address this important question through the distinctive properties of(More)
BACKGROUND Our previous ex vivo study has shown that autofluorescence spectroscopy at 330-nm excitation can discriminate specimens of normal buccal pouch mucosa (normal), epithelial hyperkeratosis (hyperkeratosis), epithelial dysplasia (dysplasia), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) taken from DMBA-treated hamsters by using the method of partial(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is a promising treatment modality for local infections. To increase the efficacy of photosensitizer, hematoporphyrin (Hp) was used as a model drug and encapsulated in liposomes and micelles. The bactericidal efficacy of the carrier-entrapped Hp was assessed against gram-positive(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine the properties of a new pulmonary delivery platform of microparticles containing micelles in which a therapeutic photosensitizing drug, hematoporphyrin (Hp), was encapsulated. Different poloxamers were used to form micellar Hp, and one of these, Pluronic L122-Hp, was subsequently incorporated into lactose(More)
KEY POINTS Intestinal ischaemia causes epithelial death and crypt dysfunction, leading to barrier defects and gut bacteria-derived septic complications. Enteral glucose protects against ischaemic injury; however, the roles played by glucose metabolites such as pyruvate and ATP on epithelial death and crypt dysfunction remain elusive. A novel form of(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Long circulating doxorubicin (Dox)-loaded PEGylated liposomes are clinically safer than the free form due to the significant reduction of cardiac toxicity. However, the therapeutic efficacy of the PEGylated liposome could further be improved if poor diffusivity and slow drug release of the liposome in tumor interstitium can be(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES This study investigated the early cellular events which occurred after mitochondrial photodamage induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT). STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS Subcellular localization of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in NIH3T3 cells was studied by confocal microscopy. Mitochondrial damage(More)
We have investigated a novel compound, 3,6-bis[2-(1-methylpyridinium)vinyl]carbazole diiodide (BMVC), for inhibiting telomerase activity and distinguishing human lung H1299 and oral Ca9-22 cancer cells from lung IMR90 and skin Detroit-551 normal fibroblast cells. The telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay shows that the concentration of BMVC(More)