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Glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSC) have been shown to promote tumor growth, tumor-associated neovascularization, therapeutic resistance, and metastasis. CXCR4 receptors have been found involved in the proliferation, metastasis, angiogenesis, and drug-resistant characteristics of glioblastoma. However, the role of CXCR4 in modulating the stem-like cell(More)
Autophagy is a crucial process for cells to maintain homeostasis and survival through degradation of cellular proteins and organelles, including mitochondria and endoplasmic reticula (ER). We previously demonstrated that temozolomide (TMZ), an alkylating agent for brain tumor chemotherapy, induced reactive oxygen species (ROS)/extracellular signal-regulated(More)
Human malignant glioma cells are characterized by local invasion. In the present study, we investigated the role of osteopontin (OPN) in the invasiveness of human glioma cells isolated from grade IV tumors. We found that the expression levels of OPN in these cell lines paralleled matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression and cell invasiveness potential.(More)
Repeated administration of amphetamine (AMPH) can produce behavioral sensitization. However, whether contextual elements and housing conditions influence AMPH-induced behavioral sensitization remains uncertain. This study was designed to examine the effects of housing conditions (single- vs. group-housed) and different contextual changes, including social(More)
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an antibody and complement mediated autoimmune disease. Serum CXC chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13) was found to be elevated in MG patients and high CXCL13 level was associated with severe clinical stages, especially in females with thymic lymphoid hyperplasia. Both protein and mRNA of CXCL13 and CXC chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5) in the(More)
Lethal toxin (LT) is a major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis. Sprague Dawley rats manifest pronounced lung edema and shock after LT treatments, resulting in high mortality. The heart failure that is induced by LT has been suggested to be a principal mechanism of lung edema and mortality in rodents. Since LT-induced death occurs more rapidly in rats(More)
BACKGROUND To correlate CD44/CD24 expression with gastric cancer recurrence and prognosis. Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality due to the high recurrence rate, of which the molecular signature has not yet been identified. METHODS We retrospectively reviewed the hospital records of patients with gastric cancer. Among 500 patients(More)
Colitis is a group of inflammatory and auto-immune disorders that affect the tissue lining of the gastrointestinal (GI) system. Studies of chemically-induced animal models of colitis have indicated that nociceptive afferents or neuropeptides have differing effects on GI inflammation. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in visceral pain and the role(More)
The present study was performed to assess the prophylactic effect of 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), an inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), in an animal model of heatstroke. Anesthetized rats, immediately before the start of heat stress, were divided into two major groups and given the following: vehicle solution (1 mL per kg body weight) or 7-NI(More)
Angiopoietin-like protein (Angptl) 1, a member of the angiopoietin-related protein family, modulates angiogenesis but little else is known of its physiological role. We found that angptl1 was upregulated at the 7th day after focal cerebral ischemia in normal mice. In order to understand the role of angptl1 in cerebral infarction, we induced focal cerebral(More)