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Different concentrations (3, 30, 300, and 3000 mg/L of culture fluid) of garlic oil (GAR), diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DAD), allicin (ALL), and allyl mercaptan (ALM) were incubated for 24 h in diluted ruminal fluid with a 50:50 forage:concentrate diet (17.7% crude protein; 30.7% neutral detergent fiber) to evaluate their effects on rumen(More)
Four Holstein heifers (360 +/- 22 and 450 +/- 28 kg of BW in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively) fitted with ruminal trocars were used in 4 x 4 Latin square designs to evaluate the effects on ruminal microbial fermentation of the following: Exp. 1, no additive, alfalfa extract (30 g/d, AEX), a mixture of cinnamaldehyde (0.18 g/d) and eugenol (0.09 g/d; CIE1), and(More)
Different doses of 12 plant extracts and 6 secondary plant metabolites were incubated for 24 h in diluted ruminal fluid with a 50:50 forage:concentrate diet. Treatments were: control (no additive), plant extracts (anise oil, cade oil, capsicum oil, cinnamon oil, clove bud oil, dill oil, fenugreek, garlic oil, ginger oil, oregano oil, tea tree oil, and(More)
Six natural plant extracts and three secondary plant metabolites were tested at five doses (0, 0.3, 3, 30, and 300 mg/L) and two different pH (7.0 and 5.5) in a duplicate 9 x 5 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine their effects on in vitro microbial fermentation using ruminal fluid from heifers fed a high-concentrate finishing diet.(More)
Eight continuous culture fermentors inoculated with ruminal liquor from heifers fed a 50:50 alfalfa hay:concentrate diet (17.6% crude protein, 28.0% neutral detergent fiber) were used in 3 replicated periods to study the effects of cinnamaldehyde (CIN) and garlic oil (GAR) on rumen microbial fermentation. Treatments were no additive (negative control); 1.25(More)
We evaluated the effects of a plant extracts mixture (XT) standardized in 5% (wt/wt) carvacrol, 3% cinnamaldehyde, and 2% capsicum oleoresin (oregano, cinnamon and Mexican pepper), alone or in combination with formic acid (FA), on the productive performance and the intestinal ecosystem of the early-weaned pig. Pigs weaned at 20 +/- 1 d of age (n = 216) were(More)
One thousand five hundred and forty Hybro HI-YR broilers were used in the study. One-day-old chickens were allocated to four groups; in the pen trial each group comprised 5 replications with 56 birds, in the digestibility trial there were 7 replications with 15 birds. The dietary treatments were as follows: unsupplemented control wheat-barley diet or the(More)
Three hundred and thirty-six 1-day-old male Hubbard HI-Ye broiler hybrids, kept in battery cages, were fed with diets based on maize (groups I and II) or wheat and barley (groups III and IV) and supplemented with or without plant extract (XT* 100 mg/kg) containing 5% carvacrol, 3% cinnamaldehyde and 2% of capsicum oleoresin. The morphological and(More)
Eight dual-flow continuous culture fermenters were used in four consecutive periods of 10 d to study the effects of six natural plant extracts on ruminal protein degradation and fermentation profiles. Fermenters were fed a diet with a 52:48 forage:concentrate ratio (DM basis). Treatments were no extract (CTR), 15 mg/kg DM of a mixture of equal proportions(More)
The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary quillaja saponin and curcumin (extract of turmeric) can modify piglet immune status and performance immediately after weaning. Piglets (n = 192) were weaned at 29 +/- 0.1 d and allocated to treatment (six replicates of eight pig per treatment) accounting for weight, litter, and gender, using a 2 x(More)