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OBJECTIVE The effects of smoking one tobacco or placebo cigarette on the mean change in voltage of the electroencephalogram (EEG), arterial blood pressure, heart, and eye blink rates were correlated with the increase in plasma nicotine, exhaled carbon monoxide, and carboxyhemoglobin levels. METHODS Twenty nonsmokers (age range, 19 to 42 years; mean age(More)
BACKGROUND We used fullerenes, whose dispersion at the nano-level was stabilized by grinding in nitrogen gas in an agitation mill, to conduct an intratracheal instillation study and an inhalation exposure study. Fullerenes were individually dispersed in distilled water including 0.1% Tween 80, and the diameter of the fullerenes was 33 nm. These suspensions(More)
We evaluated the pulmonary pathological features of rats that received a single intratracheal instillation and a 4-week inhalation of a fullerene. We used fullerene C(60) (nanom purple; Frontier Carbon Co. Ltd, Japan) in this study. Male Wistar rats received intratracheal dose of 0.1, 0.2, or 1 mg of C(60), and were sacrificed at 3 days, 1 week, 1 month, 3(More)
It has been demonstrated that administration of an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein (IL-1ra) reduces ischemic brain injury; however, the detrimental mechanism initiated by interleukin-1 (IL-1) in ischemic brain injury is unclear. In this study, we used mice that were transfected to overexpress human IL-1ra to elucidate the role of IL-1 in the(More)
Short latency somatosensory evoked potentials to median or ulnar nerve stimulation were recorded in a patient with syringomyelia. Scalp-recorded far-field P14 was clearly preserved, but spinal N13-P13 components disappeared. Our findings support the hypothesis that spinal N13-P13 is generated by structures intrinsic to the cervical cord, most likely in the(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) has multiple actions. It is an interleukin-1 antagonist as well as a hemeoxygenase inhibitor. Interleukin-1 is produced in ischemic brain and probably contributes to ischemic injury, although the role of heme oxygenase during ischemia is unknown. Whether ZnPP treatment is more effective before or after(More)
Since nanoparticles easily agglomerate to form larger particles, it is important to maintain the size of their agglomerates at the nano-level to evaluate the harmful effect of the nanoparticles. We prevented agglomeration of nickel oxide nanoparticles by ultrasound diffusion and filtration, established an acute exposure model using animals, and examined(More)
To identify the origin of scalp-recorded far-field negativity of short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials to median nerve stimulation (designated N18), direct records were made from the thalamus and ventricular system during 4 stereotaxic and 3 posterior fossa operations. In the thalamus a negative potential with almost the same latency as the scalp(More)
Various amplitude ratios were measured in 20 normal controls and 36 patients with midbrain-pontine, thalamic or putaminal lesions in order to evaluate the amplitude abnormalities in scalp far-field N18 following median nerve stimulation. A study of normal controls showed that the distributions of P9/N18, P14/N18 and N18/P14 + N18 resembled a gaussian(More)
Inhalation studies and intratracheal instillation studies using laboratory animals are commonly conducted for pulmonary toxicity tests of nanomaterials. In our study, male Wister rats were exposed to nickel oxide (NiO) particles including a nano-scale, even for aerosols and suspensions, in a 4-week inhalation and intratracheal instillation. Using(More)