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The movement of eukaryotic flagella and cilia is regulated by intracellular calcium. We have tested a model in which the central pair of microtubules mediate the effect of Ca(2+) to modify the dynein activity. We used a novel microtubule sliding assay that allowed us to test the effect of Ca(2+) in the presence or absence of the central-pair microtubules.(More)
Eukaryotic flagella beat rhythmically. Dynein is a protein that powers flagellar motion, and oscillation may be inherent to this protein. Here we determine whether oscillation is a property of dynein arms themselves or whether oscillation requires an intact axoneme, which is the central core of the flagellum and consists of a regular array of microtubules.(More)
To help understand the mechanism by which the sliding movement of outer-doublet microtubules in cilia and flagella is converted into bending waves, we examined the effect of mechanical force imposed on the flagella of Chlamydomonas mutants lacking the central pair or multiple dyneins. These mutants were almost completely nonmotile under normal conditions. A(More)
It is generally accepted that the oscillatory beating characteristic of sperm flagella is the result of an ATP-induced sliding between the doublet microtubules of the flagellar axoneme, with these longitudinal forces being converted into a lateral bending moment by resistive components of the structure that limit the displacement. However, little is known(More)
Although eukaryotic flagella and cilia all share the basic 9+2 microtubule-organization of their internal axonemes, and are capable of generating bending-motion, the waveforms, amplitudes, and velocities of the bending-motions are quite diverse. To explore the structural basis of this functional diversity of flagella and cilia, we here compare the axonemal(More)
Recent experimental studies of microtubule sliding in demembranated sea urchin sperm flagella are described. A local iontophoretic application of ATP to a Triton-extracted flagellum elicits a local bending response whose form is in exact conformity with the predictions of the sliding microtubule model. Cinematographic analysis of the microtubule sliding(More)
Dynein is a microtubule motor that powers motility of cilia and flagella. There is evidence that the relative sliding of the doublet microtubules is due to a conformational change in the motor domain that moves a microtubule bound to the end of an extension known as the stalk. A predominant model for the movement involves a rotation of the head domain, with(More)
The movement of eukaryotic flagella is characterized by its oscillatory nature. In sea urchin sperm, for example, planar bends are formed in alternating directions at the base of the flagellum and travel toward the tip as continuous waves. The bending is caused by the orchestrated activity of dynein arms to induce patterned sliding between doublet(More)
When the head of a sea-urchin sperm is held in the tip of a micropipette and vibrated laterally, the flagellum beats in phase with the imposed vibration. Rotation of the plane of pipette vibration around the head axis induces a corresponding rotation of the plane of beating, in both live and reactivated sperm. Detailed analysis of the waveforms occurring at(More)