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Although the association between social support and postpartum depression has been previously investigated, its causal relationship remains unclear. Therefore, we examined prospectively whether social support during pregnancy affected postpartum depression. Social support and depressive symptoms were assessed by Japanese version of Social Support(More)
BACKGROUND The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is a widely used screening tool for postpartum depression (PPD). Although the reliability and validity of EPDS in Japanese has been confirmed and the prevalence of PPD is found to be about the same as Western countries, the factor structure of the Japanese version of EPDS has not been elucidated(More)
BACKGROUND The Mother-Infant Bonding Questionnaire (MIBQ) has been widely used to assess maternal emotional involvement with infants. Although the reliability and validity of the MIBQ in the postpartum period has been confirmed, it remains unclear whether the MIBQ is appropriate to assess maternal bonding in both pregnancy and the postpartum period over(More)
AIM Although the association between maternal depression and bonding failure during pregnancy and after delivery has been investigated, the causal relationships remain unclear. METHODS A total of 751 women (mean [SD] age, 32.1 [4.4] years) completed the Mother-Infant Bonding Questionnaire and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale during early pregnancy(More)
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