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Transcription factors involved in the specification and differentiation of neurons often continue to be expressed in the adult brain, but remarkably little is known about their late functions. Nurr1, one such transcription factor, is essential for early differentiation of midbrain dopamine (mDA) neurons but continues to be expressed into adulthood. In(More)
The yeast and animal SNF-SWI and related multiprotein complexes are thought to play an important role in processes, such as transcription factor binding to regulatory elements, which require nucleosome remodeling in order to relieve the repressing effect of packaging DNA in chromatin. There are two mammalian homologs of the yeast SNF2-SWI2 subunit protein,(More)
Nurr1 is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors that is expressed predominantly in the central nervous system, including developing dopaminergic neurons. Recently, it was demonstrated that Nurr1 is critical for midbrain dopaminergic cell differentiation. In order to investigate a possible relation of Nurr1 with the(More)
(6R)-L-erythro-5,6,7,8-Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), tryptophan hydroxylase, phenylalanine hydroxylase, and nitric-oxide synthase. These enzymes synthesize neurotransmitters, e.g. catecholamines, serotonin, and nitric oxide (NO). We established mice unable to synthesize BH4 by disruption of the(More)
Dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) is a hereditary dystonia characterized by a childhood onset of fixed dystonic posture with a dramatic and sustained response to relatively low doses of levodopa. DRD is thought to result from striatal dopamine deficiency due to a reduced synthesis and activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the synthetic enzyme for dopamine.(More)
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) catalyzes the decarboxylation of both L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and L-5-hydroxytryptophan to dopamine and serotonin, respectively, which are major mammalian neurotransmitters and hormones belonging to catecholamines and indoleamines. This report describes the organization of the human AADC gene. We proved that(More)
Loss of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene function results in constitutive activation of the canonical Wnt pathway and represents the main initiating and rate-limiting event in colorectal tumorigenesis. APC is likely to participate in a wide spectrum of biological functions via its different functional domains and is abundantly expressed in the brain as(More)
We first identified GTP cyclohydrolase I activity (EC 3.5.4.16) in the ciliated protozoa, Tetrahymena pyriformis. The Vmax value of the enzyme in the cellular extract of T. pyriformis was 255 pmol mg-1 protein h-1. Michaelis-Menten kinetics indicated a positive cooperative binding of GTP to the enzyme. The GTP concentration producing half-maximal velocity(More)
Sepiapterin reductase (SPR) is an enzyme that acts in the third and final step of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) biosynthesis. The human Spr gene locates within the region of 2.5MB mapped to PARK3, an autosomal dominant form of familial Parkinson's diseases. In order to explore the role of SPR in the metabolism of BH4, we produced and analyzed Spr-deficient(More)
Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase (AADC) is an enzyme that plays an essential role in synthesizing catecholamines and serotonin in neuronal and endocrine tissues. AADC has also been detected in other nonneuronal tissues including liver and kidney, although its physiological role in nonneuronal tissues has not yet been defined. Previously we have cloned a(More)