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Transcription factors involved in the specification and differentiation of neurons often continue to be expressed in the adult brain, but remarkably little is known about their late functions. Nurr1, one such transcription factor, is essential for early differentiation of midbrain dopamine (mDA) neurons but continues to be expressed into adulthood. In(More)
Dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) is a hereditary dystonia characterized by a childhood onset of fixed dystonic posture with a dramatic and sustained response to relatively low doses of levodopa. DRD is thought to result from striatal dopamine deficiency due to a reduced synthesis and activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the synthetic enzyme for dopamine.(More)
The tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; EC is a rate-limiting enzyme in the dopamine synthesis and important for the central dopaminergic system, which controls voluntary movements and reward-dependent behaviors. Here, to further explore the regulatory mechanism of dopamine levels by TH in adult mouse brains, we employed a genetic method to inactivate the(More)
Loss of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene function results in constitutive activation of the canonical Wnt pathway and represents the main initiating and rate-limiting event in colorectal tumorigenesis. APC is likely to participate in a wide spectrum of biological functions via its different functional domains and is abundantly expressed in the brain as(More)
One of the possibly mutated genes in DOPA-responsive dystonia (DRD, Segawa's disease) is the gene encoding GTP cyclohydrolase I, which is the rate-limiting enzyme for tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) biosynthesis. Based on our findings on 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase (PTS) gene-disrupted (Pts(-/-)) mice, we suggested that the amount of tyrosine hydroxylase(More)
Postnatal development of dopaminergic system is closely related to the development of psychomotor function. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of dopamine and requires tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) as a cofactor. To clarify the effect of partial BH4 deficiency on postnatal development of the dopaminergic system, we(More)
Previously we identified two alternative first exons (exon N1 and exon L1) coding for 5' untranslated regions of human aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) and found that their alternative usage produced two types of mRNAs in a tissue-specific manner. To determine the cis-acting element regulating the tissue-specific expression of human AADC, we(More)
ATF-2/CRE-BP1 was originally identified as a cAMP-responsive element (CRE) binding protein abundant in the brain. We previously reported that phosphorylation of ATF-2 increased the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), which is the rate-limiting enzyme for catecholamine biosynthesis, directly acting on the CRE in the promoter region of the TH gene in(More)
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a common genetic disorder arising from a deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase. If left untreated, the accumulation of phenylalanine leads to brain damage and neuropsychological dysfunction. One of the abnormalities found in hyperphenylalaninemic patients and a mouse model of PKU is an aminergic deficit in the brain. We previously(More)
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