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OBJECTIVE Topiramate, valproate, propranolol, amitriptyline, and methysergide have been widely prescribed for migraine prophylaxis, but their mechanism or site of action is uncertain. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) has been implicated in migraine and as a headache trigger and can be evoked in experimental animals by electrical or chemical stimulation.(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) plays an important role in insulin sensitivity, tissue homeostasis, and regulating cellular functions. We found high-level expression of PPARgamma in embryo mouse brain and neural stem cells (NSCs), in contrast to extremely low levels in adult mouse brain. Here, we show that PPARgamma mediates the(More)
BACKGROUND Adiponectin is a fat-derived plasma protein that has beneficial actions on cardiovascular disorders. A low level of plasma adiponectin is associated with increased mortality after ischemic stroke; however, the causal role of adiponectin in ischemic stroke is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS To explore the role of adiponectin in the development of(More)
Leukotrienes (LTs) and lipoxins (LXs) are lipid mediators that play a key role in regulating acute inflammatory responses. Their roles in neural stem cell (NSC) functions are of interest. We showed here that LTB(4) and LXA(4) regulated proliferation and differentiation of murine NSCs that were isolated from embryo brains. Proliferation of NSCs was(More)
Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1) is an autosomal dominant subtype of migraine with aura that is associated with hemiparesis. As with other types of migraine, it affects women more frequently than men. FHM1 is caused by mutations in the CACNA1A gene, which encodes the alpha1A subunit of Cav2.1 channels; the R192Q mutation in CACNA1A causes a mild(More)
Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are a great concern throughout the world, because they have adverse effects on human health and wildlife. In the present study, we investigated the effects of EDs on the proliferation and survival of murine neural stem cells (NSCs). In contrast to bisphenol A, phthalic acid benzyl n-butyl ester, phthalic acid di-n-butyl ester and(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a nuclear receptor, whose activation has been linked to several physiologic pathways including those related to the regulation of insulin sensitivity. Here, we investigate effects of PPARgamma specific ligands, rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, on formation of nitrotyrosine and increased(More)
Although several risk factors for stroke have been identified, one-third remain unexplained. Here we show that infection with Streptococcus mutans expressing collagen-binding protein (CBP) is a potential risk factor for haemorrhagic stroke. Infection with serotype k S. mutans, but not a standard strain, aggravates cerebral haemorrhage in mice. Serotype k S.(More)
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used in clinical situations as anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic drugs. However, it is still unknown whether NSAIDs have effects on the development of the central nervous system. In the present study, we investigated the effects of NSAIDs on neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and(More)
PURPOSE Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) plays a important role in various physiological functions. We examined whether PPARgamma is expressed in primary squamous cell carcinoma and lymph node metastasis and whether PPARgamma is a potential target for tumor therapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND RESULTS A high-level expression of(More)