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Hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAAs) are secondary metabolites involved in the defense of plants against pathogens. Here, we report the first identification of HCAAs, p-coumaroylagmatine, feruloylagmatine, p-coumaroylputrescine and feruloylputrescine, in Arabidopsis thaliana rosette leaves infected with Alternaria brassicicola and the assignment of At5g61160(More)
Fungicides generally inhibit enzymatic reactions involved in fungal cellular biosynthesis. Here we report, for the first time, an example of fungicidal effects through hyperactivation of a fungal signal transduction pathway. The OSC1 gene, encoding a MAP kinase (MAPK) related to yeast Hog1, was isolated from the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum lagenarium(More)
The upregulation of the tryptophan (Trp) pathway in rice leaves infected by Bipolaris oryzae was indicated by: (i) enhanced enzyme activity of anthranilate synthase (AS), which regulates metabolic flux in the Trp pathway; (ii) elevated levels of the AS (OASA2, OASB1, and OASB2) transcripts; and (iii) increases in the contents of anthranilate, indole, and(More)
The molecular phylogeny and biogeography of two widely distributed Amanita species, A. muscaria and A. pantherina, were studied based on specimens from diverse localities. Analyses of both a partial sequence of the ITS region of nuclear DNA and a partial sequence of the beta-tubulin gene were able to resolve specimens of each species. Analyses revealed a(More)
Tryptophan-derived secondary metabolites, including serotonin and its hydroxycinnamic acid amides, markedly accumulate in rice leaves in response to pathogen attack. These compounds have been implicated in the physical defense system against pathogen invasion by being deposited in cell walls. Serotonin is biosynthesized from tryptophan via tryptamine, and(More)
We performed a phylogenetic analysis of heavy-metal ATPases (HMAs) in fungi and found that HMAs can be divided into three groups, A, B, and C. Group A is predicted to deliver copper ions to copper-containing proteins, while Groups B and C are thought to function as cell-membrane copper-efflux pumps. Furthermore, Groups B and C consist of fungal-specific(More)
We evaluated whether or not the effect of adalimumab (ADA) in combination with the disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) other than methotrexate (MTX) is comparable to the ADA+MTX therapy for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 216 patients with active RA at Kohnan Kakogawa Hospital and Kobe University Hospital were enrolled.(More)
Filamentous ascomycetous fungi possess many histidine kinases and two conserved response regulators, Ssk1p and Skn7p, in their two-component signaling systems. We previously reported that the fungus unique group III histidine kinase regulates high-osmolarity adaptation and iprodione/fludioxonil fungicide sensitivity by controlling the phosphorylation of(More)
We previously reported that the group III histidine kinase Dic1p in the maize pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus is involved in resistance to dicarboximide and phenylpyrrole fungicides and in osmotic adaptation. In addition, exposure to the phenylpyrrole fungicide fludioxonil led to improper activation of Hog1-type mitogen-activated protein kinases(More)
All fungi use multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades to respond to external signals to regulate specialized responses. In this study, we cloned and characterized a putative MAPKKK gene ChSte11, orthologous to yeast STE11, of Cochliobolus heterostrophus. DeltaChste11 strains showed defects in conidiation, sexual development, melanization(More)