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It has been reported that the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has some functional roles in inducing plasticity in the adult human brain and the Val66Met BDNF polymorphism affects the plasticity induction. In contrast, some long lasting effects were not fully induced in subjects with non-Val-Val polymorphism. In this communication, we(More)
Stress-related disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and panic disorders, are disproportionately prevalent in females. However, the biological mechanism underlying these sex differences in the prevalence rate remains unclear. In the present study, we examined sex differences in fear memory, fear extinction, and spontaneous recovery of(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to clarify the symptomatology of the eating disorders examining the prefrontal function and activity associated with self-regulation among participants with or without eating disorders. METHODS Ten patients with anorexia nervosa, fourteen with bulimia nervosa, and fourteen healthy control participants performed two(More)
Retinoids influence cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis via retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR), and have therapeutic applications in several cancers and dermatologic diseases. Recent reports indicate that depression occasionally occurs in patients using the acne drug Accutane, the active component(More)
Based on NMDA hypofunction hypothesis for negative symptoms and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, MK-801-induced animal models of schizophrenia may help us understand the different effects between typical and atypical antipsychotics. On the other hand, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways may participate in antipsychotic(More)
Several lines of evidence suggest that the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor plays a significant role in fear conditioning and extinction. However, our knowledge of the role of D-serine, an endogenous ligand for the glycine site of the NMDA receptor, in fear extinction is quite limited compared to that of D-cycloserine, an exogenous partial agonist for(More)
Midkine is a 13-kDa retinoic acid-induced heparin-binding growth factor involved in various biological phenomena such as cell migration, neurogenesis, and tissue repair. We previously demonstrated that midkine-deficient (Mdk(-/-)) mice exhibited a delayed hippocampal development with impaired working memory and increased anxiety only at the age of 4 weeks.(More)
Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine-disrupting chemical, is widely present in the environment. It has been reported that perinatal exposure to low doses of BPA that are less than the tolerable daily intake level (50μg/kg/day) affects anxiety-like behavior and dopamine levels in the brain. Although the dopaminergic system in the brain is considered to be related(More)
DNA methylation is one of the essential factors in the control of gene expression. Alteration of the DNA methylation pattern has been linked to various neurological, behavioral and neurocognitive dysfunctions. Recent studies have pointed out the importance of epigenetics in brain development and functions including learning and memory. Nutrients related to(More)
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response is one of the few and major paradigms for investigating sensorimotor gating systems in humans and rodents in a similar fashion. PPI deficits are observed not only in patients with schizophrenia, but also in patients with anxiety disorders. Previous studies have shown that PPI in rats can be enhanced(More)