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A fundamental issue in cortical processing of sensory information is whether top-down control circuits from higher brain areas to primary sensory areas not only modulate but actively engage in perception. Here, we report the identification of a neural circuit for top-down control in the mouse somatosensory system. The circuit consisted of a long-range(More)
Understanding how emotion is generated, how conflicting emotions are regulated, and how emotional states relate to sophisticated behaviors is a crucial challenge in brain research. Model animals showing selective emotion-related phenotypes are highly useful for examining these issues. Here, we describe a novel mouse model that withdraws in(More)
BACKGROUND To reduce adverse reactions due to platelet (PLT) transfusion, medical solutions on the market, such as saline and ACD-A, are used to replace the plasma of PLT concentrates in Japan; however, they are not strongly preservative. Here, an attempt was made to develop a novel additive solution (M-sol) having the ability to preserve PLTs stably, with(More)
BACKGROUND Leukodepletion reduces but does not eliminate adverse reactions to platelet concentrate (PC). As an alternative strategy, plasma reduction or washing of platelets should be considered. However, the efficacy of this strategy is still unclear. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 12 patients who experienced adverse reactions at a 29 to 100 percent(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES We previously developed a novel additive solution (M-sol) with a high ability to preserve the in vitro qualities of platelets (PLTs) in washed PLTs Here, we compared the ability of M-sol with that of commercially available additive solutions (ASs) to preserve the in vitro qualities (pH, mean PLT volume, %disc, P-selectin,(More)
The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is a multi-ligand receptor that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface receptors. In diabetes and Alzheimer's disease, pathological progression is accelerated by activation of RAGE. However, how RAGE influences gross behavioral activity patterns in basal condition has not been(More)
Activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc/Arg3.1) was originally identified in patients with seizures. It is densely distributed in the hip-pocampus and amygdala in particular. Because the expression of Arc/Arg3.1 is regulated by nerve inputs , it is thought to be an immediate early gene. As shown both in vitro and in vivo, Arc/Arg3.1 is(More)
In situ generation of less accessible N-Boc-protected imines from aldehydes and their application to the direct three-component Mannich reaction with β-dicarbonyls were realized. The catalyst-free aldol reaction of ynals with β-dicarbonyls was also developed.