Chiharu Kawakami

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BACKGROUND Oseltamivir is an effective inhibitor of influenza virus neuraminidase. Although viruses resistant to oseltamivir emerge less frequently than those resistant to amantadine or rimantadine, information on oseltamivir-resistant viruses arising during clinical use of the drug in children is limited. Our aim was to investigate oseltamivir resistance(More)
The extensive use of neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors to treat influenza virus infections mandates close monitoring for resistant variants. Cultured cells do not provide a reliable means of evaluating the susceptibility of human influenza virus isolates to NA inhibitors. That is, the growth of such viruses in cell lines (e.g., Madin-Darby canine kidney [MDCK](More)
CONTEXT Very little is known about the frequency of generation and transmissibility of influenza B viruses with reduced sensitivity to neuraminidase inhibitors. Furthermore, transmission of resistant virus, whether influenza A or B, has not been recognized to date. OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence and transmissibility of influenza B viruses with reduced(More)
BACKGROUND Recently, many Japanese physicians have claimed that oseltamivir is less effective in children with influenza B virus infection. This study assesses the effectiveness of oseltamivir against influenza A (H3N2) and influenza B in children on the basis of the duration of febrile illness. METHODS We used oseltamivir to treat 127 children with(More)
BACKGROUND Although influenza virus resistance to the neuraminidase inhibitor zanamivir is reported less frequently than is resistance to the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir in clinical settings, it is unknown whether this difference is due to the limited use of zanamivir or to an inherent property of the drug. We therefore compared the prevalence of(More)
In this study, the clinical usefulness of silver amplification immunochromatography (SAI) influenza virus detection kits, which employed a photographic development technology to increase the sensitivity of the conventional immunochromatographic assay was evaluated. Influenza A and B virus strains of nasopharyngeal aspirates obtained from influenza patients(More)
We assessed vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza in children 6 months to 15 years of age in 22 hospitals in Japan during the 2013-14 season. Our study was conducted according to a test-negative case-control design based on influenza rapid diagnostic test (IRDT) results. Outpatients who came to our clinics(More)
Rapid and accurate diagnosis is very important for the control of influenza, which is usually diagnosed on a clinical basis. Recently, some rapid diagnostic tests for detecting influenza viruses in respiratory specimens have become available and have proved to be clinically useful. The rapid confirmation of an influenza diagnosis enables prompt treatment(More)
Influenza-associated encephalopathy is often reported in young Japanese children, but its pathogenesis is unknown. Although influenza virus can be demonstrated by throat culture for patients with encephalopathy, cultures of samples of cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) do not yield the virus. Eight patients with encephalopathy or complicated febrile convulsions had(More)