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Lymphocytes face major metabolic challenges upon activation. They must meet the bioenergetic and biosynthetic demands of increased cell proliferation and also adapt to changing environmental conditions, in which nutrients and oxygen may be limiting. An emerging theme in immunology is that metabolic reprogramming and lymphocyte activation are intricately(More)
A "switch" from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to aerobic glycolysis is a hallmark of T cell activation and is thought to be required to meet the metabolic demands of proliferation. However, why proliferating cells adopt this less efficient metabolism, especially in an oxygen-replete environment, remains incompletely understood. We show here that(More)
—Injection locking has been actively researched for its possibility to improve laser performance for both digital and analog applications. When a modulated follower laser (also termed " slave " laser) is locked to the master laser, its nonlinear distortion and frequency chirp may be reduced. As well, the resonance frequency can increase to several times(More)
Optical injection locking has been demonstrated to increase the laser bandwidth and reduce the laser chirp and distortion. Around 3x enhancement in relaxation oscillation with increased modulation efficiency at low frequencies was repotted [I]. The improved frequency response, combined with the reduced laser nonlinearity, can be very attractive for analog(More)
Activated effector T (TE) cells augment anabolic pathways of metabolism, such as aerobic glycolysis, while memory T (TM) cells engage catabolic pathways, like fatty acid oxidation (FAO). However, signals that drive these differences remain unclear. Mitochondria are metabolic organelles that actively transform their ultrastructure. Therefore, we questioned(More)
Failure of T cells to protect against cancer is thought to result from lack of antigen recognition, chronic activation, and/or suppression by other cells. Using a mouse sarcoma model, we show that glucose consumption by tumors metabolically restricts T cells, leading to their dampened mTOR activity, glycolytic capacity, and IFN-γ production, thereby(More)
Designing multifunctional surfaces that have user-specified interactions with impacting liquids and with incident light is a topic of both fundamental and practical significance. Taking cues from nature, we use tapered conical nanotextures to fabricate the multifunctional surfaces; the slender conical features result in large topographic roughness, while(More)
We report progress in using nanoimprint lithography to fabricate high fidelity blazed diffraction gratings. Anisotropically etched silicon gratings with 200 nm period and 7.5° blaze angle were successfully replicated onto 100 mm diameter wafers with subnanometer roughness and excellent profile conformity. Out-of-plane distortion induced by residual stress(More)