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BACKGROUND Animal behavior is governed by the activity of interconnected brain circuits. Comprehensive brain wiring maps are thus needed in order to formulate hypotheses about information flow and also to guide genetic manipulations aimed at understanding how genes and circuits orchestrate complex behaviors. RESULTS To assemble this map, we deconstructed(More)
How the brain perceives sensory information and generates meaningful behavior depends critically on its underlying circuitry. The protocerebral bridge (PB) is a major part of the insect central complex (CX), a premotor center that may be analogous to the human basal ganglia. Here, by deconstructing hundreds of PB single neurons and reconstructing them into(More)
Situations requiring rapid decision-making in response to dynamic environmental demands occur repeatedly in natural environments. Neuromodulation can offer important flexibility to the output of neural networks in coping with changing conditions, but the contribution of individual neuromodulatory neurons in social behavior networks remains relatively(More)
The intrinsic turbidity of scaffolds formed by natural biomaterials such as collagen fibers prevents high-resolution light microscopy in depth. In this research, we have developed a new method of using light microscopy for penetrative three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of scaffolds formed by collagen, chitosan, or cellulose. First, we applied an(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strains resistant to metronidazole, clarithromycin and amoxicillin is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility patterns in H. pylori strains isolated from eastern Taiwan. METHODS One strain each of H. pylori was isolated from 133 symptomatic(More)
Local neurons in the vertebrate retina are instrumental in transforming visual inputs to extract contrast, motion, and color information and in shaping bipolar-to-ganglion cell transmission to the brain. In Drosophila, UV vision is represented by R7 inner photoreceptor neurons that project to the medulla M6 stratum, with relatively little known of this(More)
The genotypes of Helicobacter pylori flaA, cagA, vacA, and iceA were determined for DNA isolated from patients with chronic gastritis or peptic ulcer in eastern Taiwan. The vacA gene encoding the s1a subtype was found to predominate in peptic ulcer patients, and the iceA1 genotype was associated with chronic gastritis. cagA and flaA genes were not found to(More)
It has been demonstrated that exercise is one of the stresses known to increase the aldosterone secretion. Both potassium and angiotensin II (Ang II) levels are shown to be correlated with aldosterone production during exercise, but the mechanism is still unclear. In an in vivo study, male rats were catheterized via right jugular vein (RJV), and divided(More)
Recent advances in sensory neuroscience using Drosophila olfaction as a model system have revealed brain maps representing the external world. Once we understand how the brain's built-in capability generates the internal olfactory maps, we can then elaborate how the brain computes and makes decision to elicit complex behaviors. Here, we review current(More)
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