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When a eukaryotic mRNA sequence specifying an amino acid motif known as 2A is directly followed by a proline codon, two nonoverlapping proteins are synthesized. From earlier work, the second protein is known to start with this proline codon and is not created by proteolysis. Here we identify the C-terminal amino acid of an upstream 2A-encoded product from(More)
Perina nuda picorna-like virus (PnPV) is an insect-infecting RNA virus with morphological and physicochemical characters similar to the Picornaviridae. In this article, we determine the complete genome sequence and analyze the gene organization of PnPV. The genome of PnPV consists of 9476 nucleotides (nts) excluding the poly(A) tail and contains a single(More)
The complete genome of the Maruca vitrata nucleopolyhedrovirus (MaviNPV) isolated from the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), was sequenced. It was found to be 111 953 bp in length, with an overall 39 % G+C content, and contained 126 open reading frames (ORFs) encoding predicted proteins of over 50 aa. The gene content and gene order(More)
A bicistronic baculovirus expression vector and fluorescent protein-based assays were used to identify the sequences that possess internal translation activity in baculovirus-infected insect cells. We demonstrated that the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR; 473 nucleotides) of Perina nuda virus (PnV) and the 5'UTR (579 nucleotides) of Rhopalosiphum padi virus(More)
Direct formation of high-quality and wafer scale graphene thin layers on insulating gate dielectrics such as SiO(2) is emergent for graphene electronics using Si-wafer compatible fabrication. Here, we report that in a chemical vapor deposition process the carbon species dissociated on Cu surfaces not only result in graphene layers on top of the catalytic Cu(More)
Four new cell lines, designated as NTU-LY-1 to -4, respectively, were established from the pupal tissues of Lymantria xylina Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). These cell lines have been cultured approximately 80 passages during 2 years in TNM-FH medium supplemented with 8% fetal bovine serum, at a constant temperature of 28 degrees C. Each line consists(More)
Here we describe the establishment of a new cell line, NTU-MV, derived from pupal tissues of an economically important pest, the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata. This cell line contained four major cell types: polymorphic cells, round cells, spindle-shaped cells, and comma cells. The doubling time of MV cells in TNM-FH medium supplemented with 8% FBS at 28(More)
BACKGROUND Outbreaks of the casuarina moth, Lymantria xylina Swinehoe (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), which is a very important forest pest in Taiwan, have occurred every five to 10 years. This moth has expanded its range of host plants to include more than 65 species of broadleaf trees. LyxyMNPV (L. xylina multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus) is highly virulent to(More)
A baculovirus has been isolated from infected larvae of the casuarina moth, Lymantria xylina Swinehoe (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) in Taiwan. Ultrastructural observation revealed that this virus is a multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (MNPV), and the name L. xylina MNPV (LyxyMNPV) was proposed. Restriction endonuclease (BamHI, EcoRI, and EcoRV) profiles of(More)
A new continuous cell line, NTU-SE, was established from the pupal tissues of an economically important pest, the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). This cell line contains four major morphologic types: round, polymorphic, spindle-shaped, and comma-shaped cells. The population doubling time of this new line in TNM-FH medium(More)