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— Wireless sensor network is an emerging technology that enables remote monitoring objects and environment. This paper proposes a protocol to track a mobile object in a sensor network dynamically. The previous researches almost focus on how to track object accurately and they do not consider the query for mobile sources. Additionally, they need not report(More)
With the growing demand in e-learning, numerous research works have been done to enhance teaching quality in e-learning environments. Among these studies, researchers have indicated that adaptive learning is a critical requirement for promoting the learning performance of students. Adaptive learning provides adaptive learning materials, learning strategies(More)
This paper proposes a Personalized e-Course Composition approach based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, called PC2PSO, to compose appropriate e-learning materials into personalized e-courses for individual learners. The PC2PSO composes a personalized e-course according to (1) whether or not the covered learning concepts of the personalized(More)
Wireless communications and digital electronics have enabled the development of low-power, low-cost, multifunctional sensors. The functionality of sensor network mainly is the measurement collection. The previous proposed protocols mainly focus on broadcasting tree structure, but it may not be efficient in data gathering. In this paper, we propose novel(More)
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a system that uses radio frequency to transmit identification wirelessly. Its functionality is much more powerful than bar code system, with which a contacting reader must be used to read the bar code. RFID, on the other hand, may read the information stored in a tag with a non-contact reader from a distance as far(More)
—For data-collection applications in sensor networks, it is important to ensure base station receives a complete picture about the monitored area. Convergecast is an important communication pattern commonly used to collect continuous data. The prior broadcast trees are not suitable for convergecast, because convergecast is a reverse broadcast process. We(More)
—Service discovery is a crucial operation for the usabil-ity of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). Traditional solutions to service discovery that were adopted on the Internet are not well suited for MANETs because of their dynamic nature. This paper presents a novel service discovery protocol based on a hierarchical grid architecture in an ad hoc network.(More)
Various graphic techniques have been developed to analyze structural errors in rule-based systems that utilize inference (propositional) logic rules. Four typical errors in rule-based systems are: redundancy (numerous rule sets resulting in the same conclusion); circularity (a rule leading back to itself); incompleteness (deadends or a rule set conclusion(More)