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This study presents a systematic design of the fully differential operational transconductance amplifier-C (OTA-C) filter for a heart activities detection apparatus. Since the linearity and noise of the filter is dependent on the building cell, a precise behavioral model for the real OTA circuit is created. To reduce the influence of coefficient sensitivity(More)
Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (hypoKPP) is characterized by episodic flaccid paralysis of muscle and acute hypokalemia during attacks. Familial forms of hypoKPP are predominantly caused by mutations of either voltage-gated Ca(2+) or Na(+) channels. The pathogenic gene mutation in non-familial hypoKPP, consisting mainly of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis(More)
Inward-rectifying potassium (Kir) channels allow more inward than outward potassium flux when channels are open in mammalian cells. At physiological resting membrane potentials, however, they predominantly mediate outward potassium flux and play important roles in regulating the resting membrane potential in diverse cell types and potassium secretion in the(More)
INTRODUCTION Sporadic periodic paralysis (SPP), the second leading cause of hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP) in Asia, has a presentation similar to that of familial periodic paralysis (FPP) and is caused by gene mutations in the calcium (Ca(2+)) (CACNA1S) and sodium (Na(+)) (SCN4A) channels of skeletal muscle. The authors determined whether SPP shares(More)
Mammalian with-no-lysine [K] (WNK) kinases are a family of four serine-threonine protein kinases, WNK1-4. Mutations of WNK1 and WNK4 in humans cause pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHA2), an autosomal-dominant disease characterized by hypertension and hyperkalemia. Increased Na+ reabsorption through Na+–Cl− cotransporter (NCC) in the distal convoluted(More)
BACKGROUND Hyperkalemia is a potentially serious complication following adrenalectomy of aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA). We analyzed the incidence and risk factors for hyperkalemia after adrenalectomy in patients with APA. METHODS We retrospectively analyzed the records of 55 patients who underwent adrenalectomy for APA between 2002 and 2011.(More)
Inactivation mutations of the luminal thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC) in the distal convoluted tubules or the basolateral chloride channel (CLCNKB) in the distal nephron are the most common genetic mutations in Gitelman's syndrome (GS) or Bartter's syndrome (BS). We conducted clinical and molecular studies in Chinese patients with GS or BS.(More)
In this paper, wireless telemetry using the near-field coupling technique with round-wire coils for an implanted cardiac microstimulator is presented. The proposed system possesses an external powering amplifier and an internal bidirectional microstimulator. The energy of the microstimulator is provided by a rectifier that can efficiently charge a(More)