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BACKGROUND The impact of toxigenic Clostridium difficile colonization (tCDC) in hospitalized patients is not clear. AIM To study the significance of tCDC in hospitalized patients. METHODS A prospective study in the medical wards of a regional hospital was performed from January to June 2011. Fecal samples collected from patients at the time of admission(More)
BACKGROUND This study is to investigate the significance and risk factors of fecal toxigenic (tCdC) or non-toxigenic Clostridium difficile colonization (ntCdC) among hospitalized patients. METHODS Adults admitted to medical wards in a district hospital between January 2011 and June 2012 were enrolled, and those with a history of colectomy, C. difficile(More)
Estrogen and mechanical forces are positive regulators for osteoblast proliferation and bone formation. We investigated the synergistic effect of estrogen and flow-induced shear stress on signal transduction and gene expression in human osetoblast-like MG63 cells and primary osteoblasts (HOBs) using activations of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)(More)
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