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We report five new complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes of Siberian woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius), sequenced with up to 73-fold coverage from DNA extracted from hair shaft material. Three of the sequences present the first complete mtDNA genomes of mammoth clade II. Analysis of these and 13 recently published mtDNA genomes demonstrates the(More)
Gene conversion events are often overlooked in analyses of genome evolution. In a conversion event, an interval of DNA sequence (not necessarily containing a gene) overwrites a highly similar sequence. The event creates relationships among genomic intervals that can confound attempts to identify orthologs and to transfer functional annotation between(More)
Many software tools for comparative analysis of genomic sequence data have been released in recent decades. Despite this, it remains challenging to determine evolutionary relationships in gene clusters due to their complex histories involving duplications, deletions, inversions, and conversions. One concept describing these relationships is orthology.(More)
Permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) have higher efficiency than the conventional induction motors. The multiphase motors have smaller torque ripple and better fault-through performance than the conventional three-phase motors. In this paper, the speed control of five-phase PMSMs without sensing position is proposed. The provided experimental results(More)
UNLABELLED The mechanisms that mediate the initiation and development of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) associated with hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV, respectively) infection remain largely unclear. In this study we conditionally coexpressed hepatitis B virus X (HBx) and hepatitis C virus core (HCP) proteins in zebrafish livers, which caused(More)
Genomic intervals that contain a cluster of similar genes are of extreme biological interest, but difficult to sequence and analyze. One goal for interspecies comparisons of such intervals is to reconstruct a parsimonious series of duplications, deletions, and speciation events (a putative evolutionary history) that could have created the contemporary(More)
BACKGROUND Gene clusters are genetically important, but their analysis poses significant computational challenges. One of the major reasons for these difficulties is gene conversion among the duplicated regions of the cluster, which can obscure their true relationships. Many computational methods for detecting gene conversion events have been released, but(More)
In a wireless environment, the bandwidth of the channels and the energy of the portable devices are limited. Data broadcast has become an excellent method for efficient data dissemination. In this paper, the problem for generating a broadcast program of a set of data items with the associated access frequencies on multiple channels is explored. In our(More)
In a wireless environment, the bandwidth of the channels and the energy of the portable devices are limited. Data broadcast has become an excellent method for efficient data dissemination. In this paper, the problem for generating a broadcast program of a set of data items with the associated access frequencies on multiple channels is explored. In our(More)
A Boersch electrostatic phase plate (BEPP) used in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) system can provide tuneable phase shifts and overcome the low contrast problem for biological imaging. Theoretically, a pure phase image with a high phase contrast can be obtained using a BEPP. However, a currently available TEM system utilizing a BEPP cannot achieve(More)