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Many plant RNA viruses use their nonstructural proteins to target and move through the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) tubules within the plant intercellular junction for cell-to-cell spreading. Most of these proteins, including the triple-gene-block 3 protein (TGBp3) of Potexvirus, are ER membrane proteins. We previously showed that TGBp3 of the Bamboo(More)
A commentary on A novel conserved mechanism for plant NLR protein pairs: the " integrated decoy " hypothesis Our conceptual and mechanistic understanding of how plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR or NB-LRR) proteins perceive pathogens continues to advance. NLRs are intracel-lular multidomain proteins that recognize pathogen-derived effectors(More)
Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response (SIR) to infection. In this work, a system dynamics mathematical model (SDMM) is examined to describe the basic components of SIR and sepsis progression. Both innate and adaptive immunities are included, and simulated results in silico have shown that adaptive immunity has significant impacts on the outcomes of(More)
We present an agent-based model (ABM) to simulate a hepatic inflammatory response (HIR) in a mouse infected by Salmonella that sometimes progressed to problematic proportions, known as "sepsis". Based on over 200 published studies, this ABM describes interactions among 21 cells or cytokines and incorporates 226 experimental data sets and/or data estimates(More)