Sleep spindles are approximately 1 s bursts of 10-16 Hz activity that occur during stage 2 sleep. Spindles are highly synchronous across the cortex and thalamus in animals, and across the scalp in humans, implying correspondingly widespread and synchronized cortical generators. However, prior studies have noted occasional dissociations of the… (More)
BACKGROUND Sleep spindles are approximately 1-second bursts of 10-15 Hz activity, occurring during normal stage 2 sleep. In animals, sleep spindles can be synchronous across multiple cortical and thalamic locations, suggesting a distributed stable phase-locked generating system. The high synchrony of spindles across scalp EEG sites suggests that this may… (More)
BACKGROUND Rural living has long been debated as a risk factor for idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). But few community-based studies compared this difference between urban and rural areas. METHODS Population-based surveys by neurologists using a standardized diagnostic protocol were conducted in the urban areas of Keelung City and compared the… (More)
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