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The effect of under-bump-metallization (UBM) on electromigration was investigated at temperatures ranging from 135 o C to 165 o C. The UBM structures were examined: 5-µm-Cu/3-µm-Ni and 5 µm Cu. Experimental results show that the solder joint with the Cu/Ni UBM has a longer electromigration lifetime than the solder joint with the Cu UBM. Three important(More)
This work demonstrated the feasibility of detecting 250zM Escherichia coli O157:H7 eaeA target DNA by using a magnetic bead-based DNA detection assay with designed labeling strategy within 40-60min. The magnetic beads were used as the solid support for the binding probe and isolated the target DNA from the sample. The detection signals could be amplified(More)
Nonthermal plasma and ultrasound are two techniques capable of microorganism inactivation in a liquid phase. However, the interaction between the two techniques is not yet understood. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted plasma (USaP) technique by combining the two means is proposed. A lab-scale USaP system was designed and experimentally tested. The(More)
Solder joints with Cu columns appear to be one of the best structures to resist electromigration. Three-dimensional thermoelectrical analysis was employed to simulate the current density and temperature distributions for eutectic SnPb solder bumps with 0.5, 5, 25, 50, and 100 lm Cu under bump metalli-zation (UBM). It was found that the hot spots and current(More)
Highly oriented [111] Cu grains with densely packed nanotwins have been fabricated by direct-current electroplating with a high stirring rate. The [111]-oriented and nanotwinned Cu (nt-Cu) allow for the unidirectional growth of Cu(6)Sn(5) intermetallics in the microbumps of three-dimensional integrated-circuit packaging; a uniform microstructure in a large(More)
Three dimensional thermo-electrical analysis was employed to simulate the current density and temperature distributions for eutectic SnAg solder bumps with shrinkage bump sizes. It was found that the current crowding effects in the solder were reduced significantly for smaller solder joints. Hot-spot temperatures and thermal gradient were increased upon(More)
  • Chih Chen
  • 2006
With the portable devices becoming smaller and more compact in size, flip-chip technology has been adopted for fine-pitch packaging in microelectronics industry. Area array of tiny solder joints can be fabricated on Si chips to achieve high-density packaging. In addition, as the required performance continues to increase, the input/output (I/O) pin count of(More)
As microelectronic industry develops 3D IC on the basis of through-Si-vias (TSV) technology, the processing and reliability of microbumps, which are used to interconnect the stacking chips, is being actively investigated. Due to the reduction in size of microbumps, the diameter is about one order of magnitude smaller than that of flip chip solder joints,(More)
To evaluate the clinical, bacteriologic, and genetic relatedness between invasive and non-invasive infections caused by group A Streptococcus (GAS), we retrospectively analyzed the GAS isolates in our hospital from the past decade. A total of 70 GAS-infected cases were enrolled in our study from the period 1993 to 2002. Twenty one cases had invasive(More)
Articles you may be interested in Influence of Cu column under-bump-metallizations on current crowding and Joule heating effects of electromigration in flip-chip solder joints Effect of void propagation on bump resistance due to electromigration in flip-chip solder joints using Kelvin structure Appl. Investigation of void nucleation and propagation during(More)