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Extracellular ATP released from axons is known to assist activity-dependent signaling between neurons and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. Here we report that ATP released from astrocytes as a result of neuronal activity can also modulate central synaptic transmission. In cultures of hippocampal neurons, endogenously released ATP tonically(More)
Axon extension during development of the nervous system is guided by many factors, but the signalling mechanisms responsible for triggering this extension remain mostly unknown. Here we have examined the role of Rho family small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) in mediating axon guidance by diffusible factors. Expression of either dominant-negative or(More)
Growing axons navigate by responding to chemical guidance cues. Here we report that growth cones of rat cerebellar axons in culture turned away from a gradient of SDF-1, a chemokine that attracts migrating leukocytes and cerebellar granule cells via a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Similarly, Xenopus spinal growth cones turned away from a gradient of(More)
Information processing in the neuron requires spatial summation of synaptic inputs at the dendrite. In CA1 pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus, a brief period of correlated pre- and postsynaptic activity, which induces long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD), results in a persistent increase or decrease in the linearity of spatial(More)
Correlated pre- and postsynaptic activity that induces long-term potentiation is known to induce a persistent enhancement of the intrinsic excitability of the presynaptic neuron. Here we report that, associated with the induction of long-term depression in hippocampal cultures and in somatosensory cortical slices, there is also a persistent reduction in the(More)
The connections between the pericruciate cortex and the medullary reticulospinal (RS) neurons were studied in anesthetized cat. Intracellular recordings were made from reticulospinal neurons and the effects of stimulating different areas of the pericruciate cortex were compared. (1) EPSPs were elicited in all the 93 neurons studied which were antidromically(More)
Cytoplasmic Ca2+ elevation and changes in Rho GTPase activity are both known to mediate axon guidance by extracellular factors, but the causal relationship between these two events has been unclear. Here we show that direct elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ by extracellular application of a low concentration of ryanodine, which activated Ca2+ release from(More)
Migration of neuronal precursor cells in the developing brain is guided by extracellular cues, but intracellular signaling processes underlying the guidance of neuronal migration are largely unknown. By examining the migration of cerebellar granule neurons along the surface of cocultured astroglial cells, we found that an extracellular gradient of Slit2, a(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is best known for its long-term survival effect on dopaminergic neurons in the ventral midbrain. A recent study showed that acute application of GDNF to these neurons suppresses A-type potassium channels and potentiates neuronal excitability. Here we have characterized the acute effects of GDNF on Ca(2+)(More)
Cytoplasmic Ca 2ϩ elevation and changes in Rho GTPase activity are both known to mediate axon guidance by extracellular factors, but the causal relationship between these two events has been unclear. Here we show that direct elevation of cytoplasmic Ca 2ϩ by extracel-lular application of a low concentration of ryanodine, which activated Ca 2ϩ release from(More)