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Many large organic cations are potent blockers of K(+) channels and other cation-selective channels belonging to the P-region superfamily. However, the mechanism by which large hydrophobic cations enter and exit the narrow pores of these proteins is obscure. Previous work has shown that a conserved Lys residue in the DEKA locus of voltage-gated Na(+)(More)
Voltage-gated Na(+) channels (NaV channels) are specifically blocked by guanidinium toxins such as tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin (STX) with nanomolar to micromolar affinity depending on key amino acid substitutions in the outer vestibule of the channel that vary with NaV gene isoforms. All NaV channels that have been studied exhibit a use-dependent(More)
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