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Understanding how to make learning more efficient and effective is an important goal in behavioral neuroscience. The notion of "desirable difficulties" asserts that challenges for learners during study result in superior learning. One "desirable difficulty" that has a robust benefit on learning is contextual interference (CI), in which different tasks are(More)
This study aimed to establish the psychometric properties of parent ratings on the Chinese version of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham IV scale (SNAP-IV) in a school-based sample of 3534 students in grades 1 to 8 from two cities and two suburbs in Taiwan and 189 children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (aged 6 to 15)(More)
Practice of tasks in an interleaved order generally induces superior retention compared to practicing in a repetitive order. Younger and older adults practiced serial reaction time tasks that were arranged in a repeated or an interleaved order on 2 successive days. Retention was tested on Day 5. For both groups, reaction times in the interleaved condition(More)
Practice of tasks in an interleaved order generally induces superior learning compared with practicing in a repetitive order, a phenomenon known as the contextual-interference (CI) effect. Increased neural activity during interleaved over repetitive practice has been associated with the beneficial effects of CI. Here, we used psychophysiological interaction(More)
OBJECTIVES Second-generation (atypical) antipsychotics have been accepted as an adjunctive medication in patients with treatment-resistant depression. This clinical trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of low-dose aripiprazole combined with regular-dose sertraline for acute major depressive episode in non-treatment-resistant depression outpatients. (More)
BACKGROUND Approximately 75% of all injury-producing falls on steps for people of all ages occur in people 65 years of age and older. Diminished attentional capacity contributes to fall risk in older adults, particularly when task demands are high. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to compare the attentional demands of ascending and descending a set(More)
We recently demonstrated that older adults can benefit as much as younger adults from learning skills in an interleaved manner. Here we investigate whether optimized learning through interleaved practice (IP) is associated with changes in inter-regional brain connectivity and whether younger and older adults differ in such brain-behavior correlations.(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Random practice of motor tasks has been shown to enhance motor learning. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of task practice order (random, blocked) on motor learning in adults with Parkinson disease (PD). SUBJECTS Twenty adults with mild PD and 20 age-matched adults (controls) participated in the study. (More)
The contextual interference (CI) effect affirms that learning is enhanced when interference during practice is high, such as when participants practice multiple tasks in a random order. Previous research showed a distinct response in the cortical motor (CM) regions of participants performing under high CI practice conditions compared with low CI conditions.(More)
The elaborative-processing and forgetting-reconstruction hypotheses are the 2 principal explanations for the contextual interference (CI) effect. The present authors' purpose was to identify which of these 2 hypotheses better accounts for the CI effect. They synchronized single transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulses to each intertrial interval to(More)