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Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which distinct cell fate is determined during organogenesis is a central issue in development and disease. Here, using conditional gene ablation in mice, we show that the transcription factor Otx2 is essential for retinal photoreceptor cell fate determination and development of the pineal gland. Otx2-deficiency(More)
Overproduction of the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) regulatory protein ODC-antizyme has been shown to correlate with cell growth inhibition in a variety of different cell types. Although the exact mechanism of this growth inhibition is not known, it has been attributed to the effect of antizyme on polyamine metabolism. Antizyme binds directly to ODC,(More)
MicroRNA-124a (miR-124a) is the most abundant microRNA expressed in the vertebrate CNS. Despite past investigations into the role of miR-124a, inconsistent results have left the in vivo function of miR-124a unclear. We examined the in vivo function of miR-124a by targeted disruption of Rncr3 (retinal non-coding RNA 3), the dominant source of miR-124a.(More)
An essential step in intricate visual processing is the segregation of visual signals into ON and OFF pathways by retinal bipolar cells (BCs). Glutamate released from photoreceptors modulates the photoresponse of ON BCs via metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6) and G protein (Go) that regulates a cation channel. However, the cation channel has not yet(More)
To clarify the function of integrin alpha(v)beta3 in the early stage of liver metastasis, we investigated the interactions of metastatic cells with their target organ under the actual blood flow by using positron emission tomography (PET). The cells used were CHO-K1 cells and their transfectants bearing human integrin alpha(v)beta3 cDNA(More)
The molecular mechanisms underlying endotoxin-induced insulin resistance remain unclear. Endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection is a potent stimulator of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). This study in rats, using the specific iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine, investigated the role of iNOS in endotoxin-induced hyperglycemia and insulin(More)
Recent studies in experimental animals have shown that combining antiangiogenic therapy with radiation can enhance tumor response. Whether this enhancement is mainly attributable to angiogenesis inhibition , endothelial cell radiosensitivity, tumor cell apoptosis, or a decrease in the number of hypoxic cells (improved oxygenation) is not known. We designed(More)
We previously reported that Otx2 is essential for photoreceptor cell fate determination; however, the functional role of Otx2 in postnatal retinal development is still unclear although it has been reported to be expressed in retinal bipolar cells and photoreceptors at postnatal stages. In this study, we first examined the roles of Otx2 in the terminal(More)
PURPOSE To identify human transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 1 (TRPM1) gene mutations in patients with congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB). METHODS We analyzed four different Japanese patients with complete CSNB in whom previous molecular examination revealed no mutation in either nyctalopin (NYX) or glutamate(More)
The photoreceptor is a highly polarized neuron and also has epithelial characteristics such as adherens junctions. To investigate the mechanisms of polarity formation of the photoreceptor cells, we conditionally knocked out atypical protein kinase Clambda (aPKClambda), which has been proposed to play a critical role in the establishment of epithelial and(More)