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OBJECTIVE The genes of catalytic enzymes of dopamine, including monoamine oxidase (MAOA and MAOB) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), have been major candidates for genes that affect smoking behavior. In this study, we investigated the relationship between smoking behavior and four polymorphisms of these genes, the MAOA variable number tandem repeat(More)
Several molecular genetic studies have been conducted with regard to the association between catecholamine-related genes and personality traits. However, the results of replication studies did not always coincide. One of the possible reasons may be that the effect exerted by the individual gene is small. In the present study, we investigated the association(More)
Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) gene is considered a candidate locus for infantile autism for several reasons. The present study investigated two polymorphic sites (C/450/T and C/661/T) in the second exon of the GRPR gene in Japanese patients with autism (DSM-IV) and healthy subjects. The two polymorphic sites were at high linkage disequilirium,(More)
The association between the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) exon III polymorphism and personality trait of novelty seeking (NS) has been studied intensively. In the Japanese population, the results of the previous studies did not always coincide. In the present study, we investigated the association between the polymorphism and personality traits evaluated by(More)
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders and depression. Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2 (CRHR2) is one of the receptors that mediate CRH signal. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between the CRHR2 gene and personality traits, evaluated using the(More)
Mitochondria is the major site of energy production in cells, therefore, mitochondrial abnormality may affect functions of organs including the brain, which constantly requires high levels of energy consumption. Previous studies have suggested a role of mitochondria and their DNA polymorphisms in neuro-psychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease,(More)
Seasonality of births in schizophrenia and other mental disorders has been consistently observed. This may be through effects of unknown environmental factors that seasonally fluctuate on the brain development. The effects may affect cognitive function of the brain and behavioral characteristics that might be correlated with the development of personality(More)
Serotonin transporter gene may play a critical role in a regulation of mood and other aspects of mental status. A large number of association studies have investigated a correlation between the polymorphism in the serotonin transporter-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) and anxiety-related personality traits. The results, however, have been inconsistent.(More)
Autistic patients have a 100 to 190-fold increased risk of neurofibromatosis compared to the general population. This suggests that the two diseases may share a common etiological background. Recently, a new allele (or the six-repeat allele) of the (AAAT)(n) repeat polymorphism in an Alu sequence in the neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1) gene was observed(More)
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a mental disease that affects approximately 1% of the population with life-long devastating consequences. Based on evidence for a major contribution of genetic factors, a decade of extensive efforts has been dedicated to the search of DNA sequence variations that increase the risk to SCZ. Search for genes in rare multiplex SCZ(More)