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1-Aminobenzotriazole (ABT) is widely used as a non-specific inhibitor of animal cytochrome P450 (CYP). In the present study, the inhibitory effect of ABT was investigated on drug oxidations catalyzed by human CYP isoforms. This inhibitory effect was compared with that of SKF-525A, another non-specific inhibitor, and ketoconazole, a potent inhibitor of(More)
1-Aminobenzotriazole (ABT) is extensively used as a non-specific cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibitor. In this study, the inhibitory effect of ABT on CYP-dependent drug oxidations was investigated in human liver microsomes (HLM) and compared with that of SKF-525A, another non-specific inhibitor. The following probe activities for human CYP isoforms were(More)
1. Cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) enzymes involved in drug oxidations in mouse intestines were characterized for their role in the first-pass metabolism of xenobiotics. 2. Preparation of mouse intestinal microsomes using a buffer containing glycerol and protease inhibitors including (p-amidinophenyl) methanesulphonyl fluoride, EDTA, soybean trypsin inhibitor,(More)
CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 exhibit significant overlap in substrate specificity, but can differ in catalytic activity and regioselectivity. To investigate their characteristics further, the enzymatic reactions of the two CYP3A enzymes were compared using midazolam, nifedipine, testosterone and terfenadine as substrates. Both CYP3A5 and CYP3A4 showed sigmoid and(More)
The attrition rate in drug development is being reduced by continuous advances in science and technology introduced by various academic institutions and pharmaceutical companies. This has been certainly noticeable in reducing the frequency with which unfavorable absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) characteristics of any candidate(More)
1. The use of everted sacs of the small intestine as an enzyme source for the study of the first-pass metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450s (P450, CYP) is described. Several drug oxidation activities for testosterone, chlorzoxazone, tolbutamide, bufuralol and warfarin were observed when everted sacs (1-cm segment) from different parts of mouse small(More)
It is important to determine the cytochrome P450 (CYP) contribution of certain drugs by taking into consideration the attrition due to issues such as genetic polymorphism and inter-individual variation. In many cases in the early discovery stage, the metabolites of a new chemical have not been identified. Therefore, the present paper devised an approach in(More)
Cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) 3A is one of the most important P450 subfamilies in terms of its broad substrate specificity and relatively high abundance in humans. The substrate specificities of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 are generally overlapped, but sometimes could differ from each other. It is still important to understand drug interactions more precisely in(More)
Sirolimus is an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and is increasingly being used in transplantation and cancer therapies. Sirolimus has low oral bioavailability and exhibits large pharmacokinetic variability. The underlying mechanisms for this variability have not been explored to a large extent. Sirolimus metabolism was characterized by in(More)
This study describes the maturation of sirolimus clearance in a cohort of very young pediatric patients with vascular anomalies. The relationship between allometrically scaled in vivo clearance and age was described by the Emax model in patients aged 1 month to 2 years. Consistent with the observed increase, in vitro intrinsic clearance of sirolimus using(More)