Chiao-Hsuan Chao

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HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD)-relevant proinflammatory cytokines robustly induce astrocyte tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1). As TIMP-1 displays pleotropic functions, we hypothesized that TIMP-1 expression may serve as a neuroprotective response of astrocytes. Previously, we reported that chronically activated astrocytes fail to maintain(More)
PROBLEM STATEMENT: Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) and its cognate targets, the Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs), were differentially expressed in human brain samples with or without HIV-1 infection or HIV-1 Encephalitis (HIVE). APPROACH: A through literature review demonstrated that cell culture models of Central Nervous System (CNS) cell(More)
Vascular leakage is an important feature of acute inflammatory shock, which currently has no effective treatment. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that can induce vascular leakage and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of shock. However, the mechanism of MIF-induced vascular leakage is still unclear. In(More)
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