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Proteins can be viewed as small-world networks of amino acid residues connected through noncovalent interactions. Nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shift covariance analyses were used to identify long-range amino acid networks in the α subunit of tryptophan synthase both for the resting state (in the absence of substrate and product) and for the working(More)
Small RNAs (sRNAs) are loaded into ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins to induce gene silencing. In plants, the 5'-terminal nucleotide is important for sRNA sorting into different AGOs. Here we show that microRNA (miRNA) duplex structure also contributes to miRNA sorting. Base pairing at the 15th nucleotide of a miRNA duplex is important for miRNA sorting in both(More)
T-Analyst is a user-friendly computer program for analyzing trajectories from molecular modeling. Instead of using Cartesian coordinates for protein conformational analysis, T-Analyst is based on internal bond-angle-torsion coordinates in which internal torsion angle movements, such as side-chain rotations, can be easily detected. The program computes(More)
Enzymes required for sulfur metabolism have been suggested to gain efficiency by restricted diffusion (i.e., channeling) of an intermediate APS(2-) between active sites. This article describes modeling of the whole channeling process by numerical solution of the Smoluchowski diffusion equation, as well as by coarse-grained Brownian dynamics. The results(More)
Solving the crystal structure of Cbl(TKB) in complex with a pentapeptide, pYTPEP, revealed that the PEP region adopted a poly-L-proline type II (PPII) helix. An unnatural amino acid termed a proline-templated glutamic acid (ptE) that constrained both the backbone and sidechain to the bound conformation was synthesized and incorporated into the pYTPXP(More)
Acetylcholinesterase rapidly hydrolyzes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in cholinergic synapses, including the neuromuscular junction. The tetramer is the most important functional form of the enzyme. Two low-resolution crystal structures have been solved. One is compact with two of its four peripheral anionic sites (PAS) sterically blocked by(More)
The regulation of a series of cellular events requires specific protein-protein interactions, which are usually mediated by modular domains to precisely select a particular sequence from diverse partners. However, most signaling domains can bind to more than one peptide sequence. How do proteins create promiscuity from precision? Moreover, these complex(More)
The thermodynamically favored complex between the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR) and 1α,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 (1,25D3) triggers a shift in equilibrium to favor VDR binding to DNA, heterodimerization with the nuclear retinoid x receptor (RXR) and subsequent regulation of gene transcription. The key amino acids and structural requirements governing VDR binding(More)
BACKGROUND Phosphopeptide-binding domains mediate many vital cellular processes such as signal transduction and protein recognition. We studied three well-known domains important for signal transduction: BRCT repeats, WW domain and forkhead-associated (FHA) domain. The first two recognize both phosphothreonine (pThr) and phosphoserine (pSer) residues, but(More)