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Tropical cities such as Singapore do not have well-defined influenza seasons but have not been spared from influenza pandemics. The 1918 epidemic in Singapore, which was then already a major global trading hub, occurred in 2 waves, June-July, and October-November, and resulted in > or = 2,870 deaths. The excess mortality rate was higher than that for(More)
BACKGROUND Fibroglandular breast tissue appears dense on mammogram, whereas fat appears nondense. It is unclear whether absolute or percentage dense area more strongly predicts breast cancer risk and whether absolute nondense area is independently associated with risk. METHODS We conducted a meta-analysis of 13 case-control studies providing results from(More)
INTRODUCTION Singapore was substantially affected by three 20th Century pandemics. This study describes the course of the pandemics, and the preventive measures adopted. MATERIALS AND METHODS We reviewed and researched a wide range of material including peer-reviewed journal articles, Ministry of Health reports, Straits Settlements reports and newspaper(More)
INTRODUCTION We carried out an epidemiological review of cholera in Singapore to determine its trends and the factors contributing to its occurrence. MATERIALS AND METHODS Epidemiological data of all notified cases of cholera maintained by the Communicable Diseases Division, Ministry of Health, for the period 1992 to 2007 were collated and analysed.(More)
The Gail model (GM) is a risk-assessment model used in individual estimation of the absolute risk of invasive breast cancer, and has been applied to both clinical counselling and breast cancer prevention studies. Although the GM has been validated in several Western studies, its applicability outside North America and Europe remains uncertain. The Singapore(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Over the past decades, incidence trends of colorectal cancer are sharply increased in Singapore. In this population-based study we describe changes in colorectal cancer incidence in Singapore and explore the reasons behind these changes through age-period cohort (APC) modeling. METHODS We included all 22,609 colorectal cancer cases(More)
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a nosocomial pathogen that has become increasingly prominent in hospitals and the community. HIV-positive patients may be one of the most MRSA-susceptible populations because of their immunocompromised status. At the Communicable Disease Centre, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, we implemented a(More)
BACKGROUND Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses an increasingly large disease and economic burden worldwide. The effectiveness of screening programs in the tropics is poorly understood. The aims of this study are: (i) to analyze the factors affecting MRSA colonization at admission and acquisition during hospitalization and (ii) to(More)
We investigated the efficacy of patient-targeted education in reducing antibiotic prescriptions for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) among adults in the private primary care setting in Singapore. Our randomized controlled trial enrolled patients aged 21 years and above presenting at general practitioner (GP) clinics with URTI symptoms for 7 days(More)
BACKGROUND Patients' expectations can influence antibiotic prescription by primary healthcare physicians. We assessed knowledge, attitude and practices towards antibiotic use for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), and whether knowledge is associated with increased expectations for antibiotics among patients visiting primary healthcare services in(More)
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