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We describe here the isolation of Reishi polysaccharides for the study of their effect on cytokine expression in mouse splenocytes. A fraction (F3) has been shown to activate the expression of IL-1, IL-6, IL-12, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, GM-CSF, G-CSF, and M-CSF, and from this three subfractions have been prepared where F3G1 activates IL-1, IL-12, TNF-alpha,(More)
Stimulating naïve CD8+ T cells with specific antigens and costimulatory signals is insufficient to induce optimal clonal expansion and effector functions. In this study, we show that the activation and differentiation of CD8+ T cells require IL-2 provided by activated CD4+ T cells at the initial priming stage within 0-2.5 hours after stimulation. This(More)
The purpose of this study was to explore adolescents' perceptions and attitudes regarding the Internet, by gender. Data were collected from 636 high school students in Taiwan. It was found that male adolescents perceived the Internet more as a "toy," while female adolescents perceived the Internet more as a "technology," "tool" or "tour." Results indicated(More)
AIM This study assessed the effectiveness of blended essential oils on menstrual cramps for outpatients with primary dysmenorrhea and explored the analgesic ingredients in the essential oils. MATERIAL AND METHODS A randomized, double-blind clinical trial was conducted. Forty-eight outpatients were diagnosed with primary dysmenorrhea by a gynecologist and(More)
In recent years, a number of studies have been done on GPS (Global Positioning System) due to the wide applications. One important research issue is on the GPS navigation. In this paper, we propose a novel data mining algorithm named PATE (prediction-based algorithm for travel time evaluation) that can efficiently predict the travel time of a navigation(More)
The mycotoxin, citrinin (CTN), is a secondary metabolite of the fermented products of Monascus. The mycotoxin can either suppress or stimulate immune responses. In the present study, the immunomodulatory role of CTN in nitric oxide (NO) production, a proinflammatory mediator in the process of inflammation, was investigated. NO is well known as a mediator of(More)
Release of substance P (SP) from nociceptive nerve fibers and activation of its receptor neurokinin 1 (NK1) are important effectors in the transmission of pain signals. Nonetheless, the role of SP in muscle pain remains unknown. Here we show that a single i.m. acid injection in mice lacking SP signaling by deletion of the tachykinin precursor 1 (Tac1) gene(More)
Noradrenergic (NAergic) A7 neurons that project axonal terminals to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord to modulate nociceptive signaling are suggested to receive tonic inhibition from local GABAergic interneurons, which are under the regulation of descending analgesic pathways. In support of this argument, we presently report GABA(B) receptor(More)
To acquire a better understanding of the online search strategies that students employ to use the Internet, this study investigated six university students' approaches to Web-based information searches. A new method, called navigation flow map (NFM), is presented that graphically displays the fluid and multilayered relationships between Web navigation and(More)