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Optimal T-cell activation and T-cell expansion require triggering by T-cell antigen receptors and co-stimulatory signals provided by accessory cells. A major co-stimulatory pathway involves crosslinking the CD28 molecule on T cells by its ligands CD80 or CD86 expressed on antigen-presenting cells. But recent studies on CD28-deficient mice have indicated(More)
Isolated guinea pig ileum displayed spontaneous contraction and fluctuation of membrane potential originating from the longitudinal muscle. Transmural stimulation of the enteric nerve plexus evoked contractions that were followed by lowered muscle tone and decreased spontaneous activity. The Na+ channel blocker tetrodotoxin, N-type Ca2+ channel blockers(More)
The rates of spontaneous mutation to 6-thioguanine resistance were determined in fibroblasts derived from normal and two Bloom syndrome individuals (GM 2548 and GM 1492). Two methods were utilized to determine the rates. Method I obtained the spontaneous mutation rate from the increase in the mutation frequency of a cell population in logarithmic-phase(More)
1. Endplate potentials (e.p.ps) were investigated in the presence of geographutoxin II (GTXII) in the mouse phrenic nerve diaphragm preparation. This toxin preferentially blocks muscle Na+ channels which allows the study of e.p.ps in the absence of nicotinic receptor antagonists or substances to depress acetylcholine release. 2. GTXII abolished muscle(More)
This study aims to evaluate whether endogenous ATP or adenosine modulates the neurotransmission and contractile function of mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm. Bath application of ATP (1 mM) and alpha, beta-methylene ATP (m-ATP, 0.1 mM) elevated muscle tones, depressed contractions (approximately 12%), and depolarized muscle membranes (approximately 20 mV).(More)
1. The effects were studied of the central neurone P-type Ca2+ channel blockers, omega-agatoxin IVA, omega-conotoxin MVIIC (polypeptide toxins) and synthetic funnel-web spider polyamine toxin on acetylcholine release from mouse motor nerve. 2. omega-Agatoxin IVA decreased the quantal content of endplate potentials and blocked synaptic transmission in the(More)
1. The Ca2+ channel subtypes of the autonomic nerves of guinea-pig atria were elucidated by monitoring the effects of specific Ca2+ channel blockers on the negative and positive inotropic responses associated respectively, with stimulation of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves. 2. In left atria paced at 2-4 Hz, the negative inotropic effect induced(More)
We have found that beta-eudesmol, a sesquiterpenol constituent of Chinese herb antagonized organophosphate-induced lethal toxicity by reversing the neuromuscular failure and reducing the occurrence of convulsions. Its possible antiepileptic action was further explored in electroshock seizure mice in vivo and in high potassium treated rat hippocampal slices(More)
Wild-type Chinese hamster V79 cells (6-thioguanine-sensitive) reduce the recovery of 6-thioguanine-resistant cells when they are cultured together at high densities, through a form of intercellular communication (metabolic cooperation). Cooperation is inhibited by 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate, rescuing the 6-thioguanine-resistant cells. These(More)