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Flavonoids, with various biological activities, are considered as key compounds in propolis. In this study, quantitative determinations of flavonoids in propolis were conducted by two complementary colorimetric methods, aluminum chloride method and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine method. Results suggested that the sum of flavonoid contents determined by the(More)
In Arabidopsis thaliana, signal transduction of the hormone ethylene involves at least two receptors, ETR1 and ERS, both of which are members of the two-component histidine protein kinase family that is prevalent in prokaryotes. The pathway also contains a negative regulator of ethylene responses, CTR1, which closely resembles members of the Raf protein(More)
Ethylene behaves as a hormone in plants, regulating such aspects of growth and development as fruit ripening, flower senescence, and abscission. Ethylene insensitivity is conferred by dominant mutations in the ETR1 gene early in the ethylene signal transduction pathway of Arabidopsis thaliana. The ETR1 gene was cloned by the method of chromosome walking.(More)
ERS (ethylene response sensor), a gene in the Arabidopsis thaliana ethylene hormone-response pathway, was uncovered by cross-hybridization with the Arabidopsis ETR1 gene. The deduced ERS protein has sequence similarity with the amino-terminal domain and putative histidine protein kinase domain of ETR1, but it does not have a receiver domain as found in(More)
Ethylene (C2H4) is a gaseous hormone that affects many aspects of plant growth and development. Ethylene perception requires specific receptors and a signal transduction pathway to coordinate downstream responses. The etr1-1 gene of Arabidopsis encodes a mutated receptor that confers dominant ethylene insensitivity. Evidence is presented here that etr1-1(More)
L-proline is an amino acid that plays an important role in proteins uniquely contributing to protein folding, structure, and stability, and this amino acid serves as a sequence-recognition motif. Proline biosynthesis can occur via two pathways, one from glutamate and the other from arginine. In both pathways, the last step of biosynthesis, the conversion of(More)
We have constructed a restriction fragment length polymorphism linkage map for the nuclear genome of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The map, containing 90 randomly distributed molecular markers, is physically very dense; greater than 50% of the genome is within 1.9 centimorgans, or approximately 270 kilobase pairs, of the mapped DNA fragments.(More)
Twelve aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes have been identified in humans. These genes, located on different chromosomes, encode a group of enzymes which oxidizes varieties of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes. Metabolic disorders and clinical problems associated with mutations of ALDH1, ALDH2, ALDH4, ALDH10 and succinic semialdehyde (SSDH) genes have been(More)
Activins and other ligands in the TGFbeta superfamily signal through a heteromeric complex of receptors. Disruption of signaling by a truncated type II activin receptor, XActRIIB (previously called XAR1), blocks mesoderm induction and promotes neuralization in Xenopus embryos. We report the cloning and characterization of a type I activin receptor, XALK4.(More)
The human proto-oncogene PBX1 codes for a homolog of Drosophila extradenticle, a divergent homeo domain protein that modulates the developmental and DNA-binding specificity of select HOM proteins. We demonstrate that wild-type Pbx proteins and chimeric E2a-Pbx1 oncoproteins cooperatively bind a consensus DNA probe with HoxB4, B6, and B7 of the Antennapedia(More)