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This paper analyzes the trade-offs in architecting stacked DRAM either as part of main memory or as a hardware-managed cache. Using stacked DRAM as part of main memory increases the effective capacity, but obtaining high performance from such a system requires Operating System (OS) support to migrate data at a page-granularity. Using stacked DRAM as a(More)
Die stacking memory technology can enable gigascale DRAM caches that can operate at 4x-8x higher bandwidth than commodity DRAM. Such caches can improve system performance by servicing data at a faster rate when the requested data is found in the cache, potentially increasing the memory bandwidth of the system by 4x-8x. Unfortunately, a DRAM cache uses the(More)
DRAM cells rely on periodic refresh operations to maintain data integrity. As the capacity of DRAM memories has increased, so has the amount of time consumed in doing refresh. Refresh operations contend with read operations, which increases read latency and reduces system performance. We show that eliminating latency penalty due to refresh can improve(More)
Phase Change Memory (PCM) is an emerging memory technology that can enable scalable high-density main memory systems. Unfortunately, PCM has higher read latency than DRAM, resulting in lower system performance. This paper investigates architectural techniques to improve the read latency of PCM. We observe that there is a wide distribution in cell resistance(More)
Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) cells rely on periodic refresh operations to maintain data integrity. As the capacity of DRAM memories has increased, so has the amount of time consumed in doing refresh. Refresh operations contend with read operations, which increases read latency and reduces system performance. We show that eliminating latency penalty(More)
Because different indexing features actually have different discriminative capabilities for spoken term detection and different levels of reliability in recognition, it is reasonable to weight the indexing features in the transcribed lattices differently during spoken term detection. In this paper, we present an initial attempt of using two weighting(More)
Energy consumption is a primary consideration that determines the usability of emerging mobile computing devices such as smartphones. Refresh operations for main memory account for a significant fraction of the overall energy consumption, especially during idle periods, when processor can be switched off quickly, however, memory contents continue to get(More)
In this course we will come to terms with the dramatic rise of China through reviewing major developments in contemporary Chinese foreign policy since the establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC), and more specifically concentrating on major developments in Chinese foreign policy during the 1980s and 1990s. The course will thus be divided into(More)
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